ENDNOTES


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1 “A Weakened World Cannot Forgive Us”
An interview with Kathleen Dean Moore The Sun (March 2001)

2 UC-Berkeley distinguished professor of cognitive science and linguistics George Lakoff states, “if the facts don’t fit the frames people have, they will keep the frames (which are, after all, physically in their brains) and ignore, forget, or explain away the facts.” Lakoff is perhaps most famous for his Don’t Think of an Elephant—Know your values and frame the debate (2004 Chelsea Green). Current cite is from his Thinking Points—Communicating our American Values and Vision (2006 Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 10, 40

3 Once established, textbooks maintain their market standing through subsequent editions, so despite the older copyright dates of the texts Loewen surveyed, the myths and inaccuracies Loewen found persist. The US history text in current use at my local high school is the second edition of a 1994 copyright, Fearon’s United States History, and it evidences the characteristics Loewen found in his 1995 survey.

          The twelve textbooks Loewen examined were: The American Adventure Social Science Staff of the Educational Research Council of America (1975 Allyn and Bacon); American Adventures Ira Peck, Steven Jantzen, and Daniel Rosen (1987 Steck-Vaughn); American History John A. Garraty with Aaron Singer and Michael Gallagher (1982 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich); The American Pageant Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy (1991 D. C. Heath); The American Tradition Robert Green, Laura L. Becker, and Robert E. Coviello (1984 Charles E. Merrill); The American Way Nancy Bauer (1979 Holt, Rinehart and Winston); The Challenge of Freedom Robert Sobel, Roger LaRaus, Linda Ann De Leon, and Harry P. Morris (1990 Glencoe); Discovering American History Allan O. Kownslar and Donald B. Frizzle (1974 Holt, Rinehart and Winston); Land of Promise Carol Berkin and Leonard Wood (1983 Scott, Foresman); Life and Liberty Philip Roden, Robynn Greer, Bruce Kraig, and Betty Bivins (1984 Scott, Foresman); Triumph of the American Nation Paul Lewis Todd and Merle Curti (1986 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich); and The United States—A History of the Republic James West Davidson and Mark H. Lytle (1981 Prentice-Hall)

4 Lies My Teacher Told Me James W. Loewen (1995 Touchstone) 220-226

5 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 127

6 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 72

7 Amnesty International Secretary-General Martin Ennals, as cited in
Amnesty’s New York publication Matchbox, Fall 1976, Ibid., 72, 402n44

8 A People’s History of the United States

     Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 431;

     Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 94-99; Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 264-269

9 The Political Economy of Third World Intervention: Mines, Money, and U.S. Policy in the Congo Crisis David Gibbs (1991 University of Chicago Press) 100, Ibid. (Blum), 157, 414n6

10 Ibid. (Blum),  Chapter 26, 156-163

    See also In Search of Enemies—A CIA Story John Stockwell (1978 W W Norton & Company); various entries for Lumumba and Mobutu.

11 Political economist and media analyst Edward S. Herman has called Mobutu “possibly the greatest thief of the 20th century in ratio of loot to GDP.”
Z Magazine November 1996
(Herman is co-author (with Noam Chomsky) of Manufacturing Consent.)

12 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 182

13 Ibid. at 210-211

14 What is not generally included in accounts of JFK’s Alliance for Progress is that “it turned out to be mostly military aid to keep in power right-wing dictatorships and enable them to stave off revolutions.” A People’s History of the United States Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 430

15 Lies My Teacher Told Me James W. Loewen (1995 Touchstone) 12, 16

16 José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher, 1883-1955
The Great Thoughts Compiled by George Seldes with David Laskin and Henry Steele Commager (1996 Ballantine Books) 537

17 Naomi Wolf discusses US citizen’s naiveté vs. global awareness in
Give Me Liberty (2008 Simon & Schuster) 197-199

18 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 142

19 The CIA in Guatemala
Richard H. Immerman (1982 University of Texas Press) 178

20 This intergenerational resistance occurs when subsequent generations are unwilling or unable to challenge established legends that their elders still hold dear. For example, committees that choose history textbooks must answer to parents and teachers whose own worldviews are frequently a product of distorted versions of our history. When myths or legends conflict with documented history, these conflicts can become more than the members of textbook selection committees are willing to suffer. The adults on these committees may just want their children to adopt the same worldviews that they themselves have embraced since their own childhood. The end result, in any event, has been the perpetuation of inaccuracies, omissions, and false legends in our nation’s official history. (See James Loewen’s account of a successful 1975 first amendment lawsuit that overcame Mississippi’s rejection of a revisionist state history textbook in Lies My Teacher Told Me 17)

21 Blood of the Land—The Government and Corporate War Against First Nations Rex Weyler (1992 New Society Publishers) 13-14

    American Indian Holocaust and Survival
Russell Thornton (1987 University of Oklahoma Press) 42-43

22 The estimated indigenous population of the contiguous United States declined from over 5 million in 1492 to a mere 250,000 by the close of the 19th century—a 95 percent reduction. This event in our history tends to be rationalized by Native Americans’ possession of the “wrong” religious beliefs as well as their classification as primitives and savages. Similarly, the European invasion of the Americas has historically been framed as a “war” fought between adult male soldiers and warriors. In actuality, indigenous peoples were exterminated without regard to age or sex by intentional actions such as gifts of small pox-infected blankets and sneak attacks on villages or encampments to kill Native Americans of any age and either sex. This genocide in our past has typically been well-camouflaged in our official national history.  The Third Chimpanzee—The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal Jared Diamond (1992 HarperCollins) 298-302

23 In War is a Force That Gives Us Meaning (2002, Anchor Books, 77-78), Chris Hedges writes, “The reinterpretation of history . . . is the bedrock of the hatred and intolerance that leads to war.” Hedges points to variations in the historical accounts of Bosnian Gavrilo Princip’s assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914 (oft-cited as the trigger that initiated World War I). Textbooks in the Serb-controlled region of Bosnia refer to Princip as “a hero and a poet,” whereas in Croatian textbooks, Princip is “an assassin trained and instructed by the Serbs to commit this act of terrorism.” And Muslims in the region offer a third version, describing Princip as “a nationalist whose deed sparked anti-Serbian rioting that was only stopped by the police from all three ethnic groups.”

          Hedges has discovered that the gap between these conflicting historical perspectives has continued to widen. “By the time today’s books in the Balkans reach recent history, the divergence takes on ludicrous proportions; each side blames the others for the Bosnian war and makes no reference to the crimes or mistakes committed by its own leaders or fighters.”

24 Guatemalan history is primarily from
The CIA in Guatemala—The Foreign Policy of Intervention
Richard H. Immerman (1982 University of Texas Press).

    Information also came from Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press), and Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books).

See also Doing Business With the Dictators—A political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944 Paul J. Dosal (1993/1995 Scholarly Resources).

25 Greg Grandin writes that “by 1930, Washington had sent gunboats into Latin American ports over six thousand times, invaded Cuba, Mexico (again), Guatemala, and Honduras, fought protracted guerrilla wars in the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti, annexed Puerto Rico, and taken a piece of Colombia to create both the Panamanian nation and the Panama Canal.”

Empire’s Workshop—Latin America, the United States, and the Rise of the New Imperialism (2006 Metropolitan Books) 3

26 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 130;

    The Father of Spin—Edward L. Bernays & the Birth of Public Relations Larry Tye (1998 Crown Publishers) 176

27 Sulzberger was a member of the CIA’s Mockingbird network (discussed ahead in chapter 8). A sampling of New York Times’ 1954 headlines: “Guatemala Rally Reflects Red Grip” (February 21); “Communism in Guatemala: A Case History” (February 21); “Guatemalan Reds Exploit Reforms” (March 3); “Dulles Condemns Reds for Intrigue in the Americas” (March 6); “Red Defeat in Guatemala” (July 1); and a July 3 front page headline announcing the arrival of Castillo Armas, “Guatemala Gives Leader of Revolt Rousing Welcome.”

28 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 134-135

29 This Peurifoy quote from Stephen Kinzer’s Overthrow (137) agrees with Peurifoy’s testimony before the House Select Committee on Communist Aggression: “I spent six hours with him one evening, and he talked like a Communist, he thought like a Communist, he acted like a Communist, and if he is not one, Mr. Chairman, he will do until one comes along.”

     The CIA in Guatemala—The Foreign Policy of Intervention Richard H. Immerman (1982 University of Texas Press) 181

30 Phillips was sometimes quite innovative in his propaganda efforts. When a well-known Guatemalan fighter pilot defected, Phillips got him drunk at Opa-Locka and asked the pilot to act out the speech he would give to all his former colleagues if he were not concerned about his relatives still living in Guatemala. A dramatic recital calling for the defection of all Guatemalan pilots resulted, and Phillips’ covert tape recording of the drunken tirade was subsequently broadcast over the Voice of Liberation network.

31 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 140

32 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 79

33 To further demonize the Arbenz administration, UFCO’s publicity office provided US journalists with photographs of mutilated bodies in a mass grave, ostensibly an example of the atrocities committed by the Arbenz “regime”—an accusation that was never substantiated. Ibid. at 78

34 Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books) 141

35 When the Guatemalan Army Chief of Staff refused to step down, his resignation was obtained at gunpoint by a three-man junta formed under the CIA’s handpicked pawn, Colonel Elfego Monzón. With President Arbenz out of the way and the military under control, Monzón’s subordinates were each handed $100,000 and dismissed from further service. Monzón himself was retired within days, and Armas assumed power.

36 The CIA in Guatemala—The Foreign Policy of Intervention

    Richard H. Immerman (1982 University of Texas Press) 198

37 Consignment to Bernabe’s list was to be taken seriously. Thousands were arbitrarily imprisoned, executed, or simply disappeared. As Ubico’s enforcer, Bernabe reputedly submerged his suspects in electric shock baths or applied a head-shrinking steel skullcap in order to “pry loose secrets and crush improper thoughts.” (Ibid. at 199)

38 Empire’s Workshop: Latin America, the United States, and the Rise of the New Imperialism Greg Grandin (2006 Metropolitan Books) 40-42

39 Debs was arrested and imprisoned following this speech on June 16, 1918. The Great Thoughts Compiled by George Seldes with David Laskin and Henry Steele Commager (1996 Ballantine Books) 196

40 The Great Thoughts Compiled by George Seldes with David Laskin and Henry Steele Commager (1996 Ballantine Books) 185

41 John L. O’Sullivan’s essay titled “Annexation” appeared in the July-August 1845 issue of Democratic Review, asserting that it was the “manifest destiny” of Anglo-Saxon Americans “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” (O’Sullivan’s “Manifest Destiny” argument was subsequently employed in the dispute with Great Britain over the Oregon Country.)

42 A People’s History of the United States, Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 148

43 Polk stated, “Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. . . . As war exists, notwithstanding all our efforts to avoid it, exists by the act of Mexico herself, we are called upon by every consideration of duty and patriotism to vindicate with decision the honor, the rights, and the interests of our country.”

         The true nature of the event was recorded in Colonel Ethan Allen Hitchcock’s diary while stationed at General Taylor’s Rio Grande encampment prior to the Mexican attack. Hitchcock states, “I have said from the first that the United States are the aggressors. . . . We have not one particle of right to be here. . . . My heart is not in the business . . . but, as a military man, I am bound to execute orders.” A People’s History of the United States Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 148-150

44 The Great Quotations George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 547

45 Lincoln’s speech included these lines: “The marching [of] an army into the midst of a peaceful Mexican settlement, frightening the inhabitants away, leaving their growing crops and other property to destruction, to you may appear a perfectly amiable, peaceful, un-provoking procedure; but it does not appear so to us.” People’s History of the United States, Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 149-151

46 Ibid. at 152

47 Ibid. at 302

48 Norton was a Harvard professor and social critic whose intellectual endeavors earned him honorary degrees from Oxford, Columbia, and Yale. The Great Quotations George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 533

49 A People’s History of the United States

    Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 294-298

50 http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_hearst.html See also The Great Quotations George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 305

51 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 301-302

52 The Great Quotations

   George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 579-580

53 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 353-354

54 In February 1915, the Imperial German government had declared the seas surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and that Allied ships in the area would be sunk without warning beginning February 18. Then on April 22, the German Embassy in Washington placed a notice in some four dozen US newspapers (often appearing next to Lusitania sailing announcements) warning that “vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters” and that “travelers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.”

          In this climate of hostilities, the Lusitania’s name was removed from her hull, the Cunard Shipping Line colors on her funnels were blacked out, and on her final voyage, none of her flags were flown. Were these attempts to promote the ship’s safe passage by concealing her national identity? Perhaps. But nevertheless, with German submarines lurking in British waters, the British Admiralty dispatched two destroyers to usher the Lusitania through British waters upon her return in March.

          Then, in an increasingly hostile naval environment that included the sinking of Allied merchant vessels by the German submarine U-20 on May 5 and 6, British naval orders did not provide escort for the Lusitania’s May 7 final and fatal return to the British Isles. Alone and stripped of her colorful identity, she became an easy mark for the U-20.

          The controversy that subsequently arose as to whether or not the Lusitania was “unarmed” generally failed to distinguish between two separate questions. The first was whether guns were mounted on her decks. The ship had been constructed with cannon deck-mounts, but no artillery was ever installed. This fact was repeatedly cited as evidence that the ship was an “unarmed passenger liner.”

          The second question was whether she was carrying munitions and matériel. The answer is “yes.” Falsified manifests concealed the Lusitania’s cargo of over 1,000 cases of 3-inch shells and nearly five million rounds of US-made munitions. Furthermore, the Kaiser’s Imperial German government knew this matériel was on board and en route to their war enemies.

          Emphatic statements of the Wilson administration that the Lusitania was unarmed were duplicitous. William Jennings Bryan understood the deception. Stating that “passengers and ammunition should not travel together,” Bryan resigned as Wilson’s secretary of state, explaining that his continued service would be unfair to “the cause which is nearest to my heart, namely, the prevention of war.” (Quotes from New York Times articles, June 1915.)

          The national discourse throughout this event was predominantly a “Hawks vs. Doves” debate over the appropriate US response to the Lusitania’s sinking, a debate that avoided any serious investigation of the liner’s actual sinking.

55 Freedom of the Seas, J. M. Kenworthy and George Young (1928 Hutchinson & Co.) Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914-18 Patrick Beesly (1982 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich), as cited in Towers of Deception—The Media Cover-Up of 9/11 Barrie Zwicker (2006 New Society Publishers) 272

56 World Crisis Winston Churchill (1923 Thornton Butterworth), as cited in Towers of Deception—The Media Cover-Up of 9/11, Barrie Zwicker (2006 New Society Publishers) 272

57 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 355

58 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 355

59 Text and video of the Roosevelt Pearl Harbor address at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm

60 Day of Deceit—The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor Robert B. Stinnett (2000 Simon & Schuster) 256

62 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 402

63 Day of Deceit—The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor, Robert B. Stinnett (2000 Simon & Schuster) 9

64 Ibid. at 18

65 As Stimson’s diary continues, his moral dilemma becomes apparent. “The question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.” Ibid. at 178

66 An earlier, November 24th, memorandum stated, “. . . Statements of Japanese government and movements [of] their naval and military forces indicate in our opinion that a surprise aggressive movement in any direction.” A memorandum three days later stated, “. . . an aggressive move by Japan is expected within the next few days. . .” At this juncture, military orders from Washington began repeatedly stressing the importance of Japan striking first. One dated November 27th read, “. . . United States desires that Japan commit the first overt act.”
     These memoranda appear in Appendix C, Day of Deceit—The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor Robert B. Stinnett (2000 Simon & Schuster)

67 Ibid. at 144-145

68 Transcript: Navy Court of Inquiry 1944 p1942, as cited in Day of Deceit—The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor, Robert B. Stinnett (2000 Simon & Schuster) 144, 349n10

69 Ibid. at 144

70 The Reminiscences of Captain Joseph J. Rochefort US Naval Institute Oral History Division 1970 163, as cited in Day of Deceit—The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor Robert B. Stinnett (2000 Simon & Schuster) 203, 361n2

71 Upon Breen's death, the trade magazine Variety stated “More than any single individual, he shaped the moral stature of the American motion picture.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Breen and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_film#World_War_II

    The Great Quotations, George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 113

72 All Governments Lie!—The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone Myra MacPherson (2006 Scribner) 246

73 “Aviation RFC?” Business Week January 31, 1948, as cited in Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948

    Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 169, 345n1

74 Some $175 billion (over $2 trillion in 2010 dollars) in war supply contracts went to private corporations; over $100 billion of this revenue went to the ten largest recipients. The Power Elite C. Wright Mills (1956 Oxford University Press) 100-101

          A postwar Senate report noted that two thousand corporations had been contracted for scientific research during the war, but that 40 percent of the $1 billion spent had gone to the ten largest corporations. US Senate report, “Economic Concentration and World War II” A People’s History of the United States Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 408, 416

          Even prior to the US declaration of war, French and British military procurements had boosted the US aircraft makers’ earnings to $21 million in 1939. By 1944, profits had soared to $52 million (over $6 billion in 2010 dollars). “Finance: War Baby in a Peace Economy,” Business Week June 7, 1947 58, 63

          Regarding tax-payer subsidies, Grumman Corporation, for example, was able to buy over $13 million worth of government-owned plants and tools for 30 cents on the dollar at war’s end. Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948 Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 9, 13, 310n7&9

75 Ibid. (Kofsky) at 256

76 “1949 in the Aircraft Industry” Automotive Industries January 1949 96; Ibid. at 12, 251, 363n22

77 The 1936 edition of the Aircraft Yearbook observed that “among the disturbing factors in American aviation is an increased tendency in some official circles to consider seriously government manufacture of aircraft and engines.”

          During a December 1947 meeting of the President’s Air Policy Commission, United Aircraft Corporation Chair Fred Rentschler stated, “There should be no reason whatever for considering this kind of assistance by government as coming within the scope of subsidy.” And in a prophetic statement at this time, Secretary Symington explained, “The word to talk is not ‘subsidy’; the word to talk is ‘security.’” Perhaps this security perspective had been on Lockheed President Robert E. Gross’ mind in January 1945—before the war’s end—when he opined, “If we have a true and lasting peace, obviously the demand for military airplanes will be limited. On the other hand, if we have an armed truce, and it begins to look as though this may be the case, the demand for military airplanes might be very considerable.” Ibid. at 48, 50, 251, 255

78 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 408, 409

79 Marshall’s term at State was bracketed by US military service. He was an Army General during WWII and became secretary of defense following his secretary of state post.

80 A People’s History of the United States

   Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 430

81 Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948

   Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 92

82 eisenhower scoffs at fears of war started by russia

   New York Times February 6, 1948

83 Additionally, Commerce Secretary Averell Harriman told the President’s Air Policy Commission that he was “convinced that [the Soviets] will not take any steps which they feel would bring them into a major conflict in the foreseeable future.” Proceedings of the President’s Air Policy Commission, September 8 1947, as cited in Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948 Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 83, 84, 328 n1,n4

84 Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 351

85 The Forrestal Diaries Walter Millis and E. S. Duffield, eds. (1951 Viking) 387, as quoted in Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948 Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 104

86 The Papers of General Lucius D. Clay: Germany 1945-49 Jean Edward Smith (1974 Indiana University Press) 466-7; Ibid. (Kofsky) at 106-7

       See also Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 351

87 Ibid. (Kofsky) at 104-122

88 The Most Noble Adventure—The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Rebuild Europe Greg Behrman (2008 Free Press) 157

89 The administration’s stance on Czechoslovakia recognized that:
1) communists had made the strongest showing of any party in Czechoslovakia’s 1946 elections; 2) a communist premier had recently been installed (Klement Gottwald); and 3) Czechoslovakia had followed the Kremlin’s withdrawal from the Marshall Plan.

         Also, the US Ambassador to Czechoslovakia cabled State Secretary Marshall during this time, observing the high probability of the Czechoslovakian Government soon becoming subservient to the Kremlin. Telegrams of September 29 and 30, 1947 US Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States V4 Eastern Europe, The Soviet Union, 232-235

         The Marshall statement was made in a telegram to the US Ambassador to France. Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948 Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 94, 99

 90 In February 1948, Czechoslovakian President Eduard Benes was seriously ill and recovering from a major stroke of the prior summer that had left him impaired (he died in September). As part of a plan to force a reconstruction of the Czech Cabinet, twelve non-communist Cabinet members submitted their resignations to Benes on February 20, with the understanding that Benes would refuse their resignations. In an abrupt change of course, the ailing Benes accepted the non-communists’ resignations, and allowed the reconstitution of a communist-dominated government on February 25. Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 347

91 Robert Dallek has stated that Soviet agents murdered Masaryk, however he offered no evidence for this assertion. (Harry S. Truman (2008 Times Books) 73) But Edward R. Murrow (Masaryk’s friend of many years) seriously doubted the suicide story. (The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 135) The timing of Masaryk’s death, Murrow’s doubts about suicide, the absence of a Soviet motive, and the extent to which the incident was unjustifiably amplified into the Reign of Terror crisis, all seem to make Washington the chief suspect in what was most likely Masaryk’s murder.

92New York Times, March 11 & 12, 1948

93 Shattered Peace

   Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 354

94 Business Week June 19 1948 26, as cited in

   Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State, Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 360

95 Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948

   Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 133

96 On March 24, 1948 a New York Times front-page headline announced warplane engines shipped to russia. The article’s lead paragraph stated, “Testimony that American warplane engines have been shipped to Russia within the last six months and that shipping boxes marked for Russia are lying ‘All over the New York waterfront’ was presented to Congress today.” The article detailed Russian shipments of planes sold at “scrap prices, ‘some of which were obviously new,’” and shipments of “everything from tractors and bulldozers to electric generators.” Somewhat unbelievably, when the press questioned the President about these reports, Truman responded, “Russia is, at the present time, a friendly nation and has been buying goods from us right along.” Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1948 (US Government Printing Office 1963) 193, as cited in Harry S. Truman and the War Scare of 1948 Frank Kofsky (1995 St. Martin’s Press) 149

97 A good source for NSC 68 is: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSC-68

98 Harry S. Truman Robert Dallek (2008 Times Books) 102

99 U.S. Television News and Cold War Propaganda, 1947-1960 Nancy E. Bernhard (2003 Cambridge University Press) 83

100 Acheson warned the editors, “We are faced with a threat not only to our country but to the civilization in which we live and to the whole physical environment in which that civilization can exist.” Ibid. at 85

101 Ibid. at 123

102 Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 285

103 Ibid.

105 Witness to a Century

     George Seldes (1987 Ballantine Books) 357-361

106 Representative Clare Hoffman’s (R-MI) labeling of Seldes as a “Red smear artist” and a “mass producer of falsehood and vilification” was widely reported, and Seldes was included in a Life Magazine photo essay that named dozens of US Citizens suspected of communist sympathies (including Leonard Bernstein, Albert Einstein, and Lillian Hellman).

         See tell the truth and run Rick Goldsmith (2006 Never Tire Productions, Kovno Communications)

107 Ronald Reagan was president of the Screen Actors Guild at this time, and testified as to the severity of the communist threat in the film industry.

108 The Culture of the Cold War

     Steven J. Whitfield (1996 John Hopkins University Press)

109 Churchill is often credited with introducing the “Iron Curtain” into Cold War lexicon, however Pravda and the Manchester Guardian quoted Joseph Goebbels, German Reichminister of Propaganda, using the term in February 1945, and Senator Arthur Vandenberg used the term on the Senate floor on November 15, 1945.

110 Khrushchev Remembers—the Last Testament,

    Strobe Talbott, editor (1974 Little, Brown and Company) 355

111 The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk

    Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 23

112 During the colonial period, approximately two percent of the Greek population came to control the vast majority of the nation’s land, wealth, and resources. The majority of the population suffered all the consequences of severe and persistent poverty, and their misery was further aggravated by the mayhem and destruction of WWII.

113 The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk

    Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 80

114 The State of Europe Howard K. Smith (Cresset Press 1950) 151 as quoted in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 35

115 Intervention and Revolution: The United States in the Third World Richard Barnet (1970 Paladin) 109, as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II

    William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 36

116 Smith called the Athens government “the worst bunch I have seen at work anywhere,” further stating, “The cruelty of its Nazi-trained police have forced honest men into the mountains. It seems to believe it needs no policy, except when the trough of foreign funds runs low, to shout, ‘Communist,’ and President Truman will send more.” The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk
Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 89, 98, 118

117 Ibid. at 91

118 Greece and the Great Powers, 1944-1947 Stephen G. Xydis (1963 Institute for Balkan Studies) 479, as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 35-36, 396n11

120 A November 1947 memorandum of the American Mission to Aid Greece read in part, “We have established practical control . . . over national budget, taxation, currency, price and wage policies, and state economic planning, as well as over imports and exports, the issuance of foreign exchange and the direction of military reconstruction and relief expenditures.”

    American Foreign Policy in Greece 1944/1949: Economic, Military and Institutional Aspects Michael M. Amen 1978 Peter Lang Ltd.) 114-115, as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II, William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 38, 396n31

121 Two-term Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou (1981-1989 and 1993-1996) chronicled this era of US-Greek relations in Democracy at Gunpoint: The Greek Front (1970 Doubleday) Current cite from page 5.

122 The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk

    Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 89

123 Polk further explained: “For example, consider the Liberty ships which the United States presented to Greece for re-creating the Greek merchant marine. After obtaining the ships, the Greek government promptly sold them to private Greek owners at extremely low prices.”

         The Liberty ships were large-capacity cargo vessels that rolled off US production lines by the hundreds during WWII. Some of the 2,400 that survived the war were sold to the Greek government to facilitate the reconstruction of their Merchant Marine; others were sold to individual Greek merchants (shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis’ fleet began with Liberty ships).

         The State Department grew concerned over public perceptions of Greek profiteering over the Liberty Ships program in 1947, and Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson instructed the US Embassy in Athens to effect a solution to the matter, because “Failure to do so would adversely affect U.S. public opinion towards Greece.” The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) 123

124 Harper’s December 1947 529-536

125 The Polk Conspiracy—The Murder and Cover-up in the Case of CBS News Correspondent George Polk

    Kati Marton (1990 Farrar, Straus & Giroux) Chapter 13

126 To launch the story, an eleven-page coroner’s report was immediately released, giving remarkable details of the crime itself, such as a claim that it “took place in a rowboat.” Sure enough, the “confession” of the eventually convicted “accomplice” to the crime stated that the murder had taken place in a rowboat.

         The unjustified nature of the communist conspiracy claim did not go unnoticed by Edward R. Murrow, whose May 17, 1948 national broadcast included these lines: “According to the Associated Press, twenty or more communists have been questioned. The record does not show that any non-communists have been questioned. . . . [A leading government spokes-person] stated, ‘We are one thousand percent sure it was the work of communists.’ He offered no support for this statement.” Ibid. at 183, 185, 218

127 Staktopoulos’ torture involved electric shocks to his feet (the scars from which he bore for the duration of his life), and beatings with truncheons (blows to his head produced permanent hearing damage), while his cries of agony were muffled by rags stuffed in his mouth. Ibid. at 275-280

128 As Bill Moyers is fond to say of incredible anecdotes, I’m not making this up. Ibid. at 299, 309

129 Rankin told Marshall that “they tend to restrain responsible Greek officials from taking necessary action for fear of further alienating opinion in the United States as created through the misinterpretations of local correspondents of influential American newspapers.”

         Rankin told Bigart, “Your inference that Mr. Tsaldaris is trying to set up a ‘rightist police state’ . . . could also harm the chance of further aid to Greece. Could it not? . . . In view of this delicate situation, I’m sure you will understand the danger of your sort of reporting.” Ibid. at 130-134

130 “Death in Salonika Bay: Who Pulled the Trigger?”

     New York Times September 17, 1977 See also Ibid. at 245

131 Ibid. at 263

132 All Governments Lie!—The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone Myra MacPherson (2006 Scribner) 280

133 Lippmann biographer Ronald Steel writes that despite expressing private doubts, Lippmann’s adherence to this position “had the inestimable virtue of not upsetting cold war politics.” Walter Lippmann and the American Century (1980 Vintage Books), Ibid. at 278-279

134 Ibid. at 278

135 Witness to a Century George Seldes (1987 Ballantine Books) 378-381

136 For example, the return of the shah increased US oil corporations’ share of Iran’s oil reserves, the CIA restored order for United Fruit Company in Guatemala, and US-installed dictatorships in Congo and Chile assured corporate access to those nations’ oil and mineral resources.

137 The Great Thoughts Compiled by George Seldes with David Laskin and Henry Steele Commager (1996 Ballantine Books) 224

138 The full quote reads, “The real difficulty is with the vast wealth and power in the hands of the few and the unscrupulous who represent or control capital. Hundreds of laws of Congress and the state legislatures are in the interest of these men and against the interests of workingmen. These need to be exposed and repealed. All laws on corporations, on taxation, on trusts, wills, descent, and the like, need examination and extensive change. This is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people no longer. It is a government of corporations, by corporations, and for corporations.”

139 William Greider refers to the British Parliament as “a self-perpetuating ‘committee of landlords’ that for centuries protected propertied wealth against disenfranchised workers and peasants.”

    One World, Ready or Not—The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism

    William Greider (1997, Simon & Schuster) 38

140 Mary Zepernick of the Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy provides a concise history of early corporate developments in the documentary The Corporation (2003 Zeitgeist Films).

141 The Court did not actually rule on the matter of corporate personhood; however, Justice Morrison Waite inserted a statement of opinion into the Court record that created an opportunity for corporate lawyers to then claim personhood status for corporations.

    The Transformation of American Law 1870-1960—The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy Morton J. Horwitz (1992 Oxford University Press) Chapter 3 “Santa Clara Revisited: The Development of Corporate Theory”

142 When Corporations Rule the World

     David C. Korten (1996 Kumarian Press) 59

143“Corporations are People Too”

    Ben Manski and Lisa Graves In These Times March 2010

144 Western Washington State University professor Daniel M. Warner observes: “The modern concept of Corporate Social Responsibility recognizes that the business firm has a range of ‘stakeholders,’ as they are called, all of whom are due fair consideration by the firm. The stakeholders are owners/managers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, government, community and -more recently- the environment and future generations.” (Personal communication, 2008) Unfortunately, it appears that stockholders remain the primary stakeholders in most corporate decision-making.

146 Mother Jones September/October 2010 2

147 In January 1989, the investigative television program 60 Minutes dis­cussed the health considerations of Alar (a brand name for the plant growth regulator Daminozide, once used extensively on tree fruit crops). With an audience estimated at 40 million people, this program elicited a public outcry that resulted in product recalls and serious financial repercussions for all levels of the food industry dealing in Alar-treated products.

         Subsequently, corporate food and agribusiness lobbying resulted in the promulgation of food disparagement laws (“banana bills”) in thirteen states (Alabama, Arizona, Colorado (amended to allow criminal prosecution), Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas), and such legislation is still pending in several other states (California, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Washington).

148 Prior to the 60 Minutes broadcast, 1) EPA scientists had classified Alar as a probable human carcinogen, 2) the American Academy of Pediatrics had urged the EPA to issue a ban on Alar, and 3) public concern had prompted six national grocery chains and nine major food processors to refuse apples treated with Alar.

         Consistent with Dodge, however, it was not until the 60 Minutes program caused serious financial repercussions that Uniroyal (Alar’s sole manufacturer) finally discontinued the sale of Alar in the US. The public health consequences and the financial distress that farmers, orchardists, and grocers suffered following the Alar Scare could have been avoided entirely had Uniroyal heeded the EPA’s warnings or the advice of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Unfortunately, it took the financial distress precipitated by the 60 Minutes broadcast to elicit Uniroyal’s response.

150 Other characteristics of psychopathy are: callous unconcern for the feelings of others; incapacity and/or inability to maintain enduring relationships; and the incapacity to experience guilt.

         The Corporation documentary (2003 Zeitgeist Films) employed psychopathologist Robert Hare, University of British Columbia emeritus professor of Psychology, for this evaluation.

151 The Institute for Legal Reform’s web page states that it favors: arbitration over litigation; increased attorney–client privilege; reduced discovery; and statutory caps on damage awards. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Legal_Reform

         Total annual Chamber of Commerce lobbying expenditures have been running between $44 and $125 million. (See endnote 181)

154 “Deregulation and the Financial Crisis” Robert Weissman January 22, 2008 Huffington Post Business

155 Warren’s concise synopsis starts about two minutes into the clip at http://thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/dbjssy/elizabeth-warren-pt--2

156 When Corporations Rule the World

    David C. Korten (1996 Kumarian Press)177

157 Public Interest Laws as “Impediments” to Free Trade Debi Barker and Jerry Mander, as cited in Alternatives to Economic Globalization The International Forum on Globalization (2002 Berrett-Koehler Publishers) 20

158 “A Stealth Attack on Democratic Governance”

     Lori Wallach The American Prospect April 2012 52

161 One World, Ready or Not—The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism William Greider (1997 Simon & Schuster) 171

162 In a tale of secrecy and intrigue (that would become a hallmark of the Cheney Vice-Presidency), GW Bush’s vice-presidential search committee concluded that the committee’s own chair—Dick Cheney—was the best candidate. Cheney avoided the extensive vetting that other candidates were subjected to by denying he was a candidate until his selection became a fait accompli. See Barton Gellman’s Angler—The Cheney Vice Presidency (2008 Penguin Group)

163 “Cheney Income At $36 Million; Bush: $894,880”

     David Cay Johnson New York Times April 14, 2001

164 Charles Lewis, founding director of the non-profit Center for Public Integrity, relates Cheney’s revolving door career in the documentary

    Why We Fight (Eugene Jarecki 2005)

165 The exceptionally sweet taste of aspartame (NutraSweet®) was discovered inadvertently during ulcer drug testing at Searle in 1965. Subsequently, numerous aspartame studies on animals reported severe reactions including death, which resulted in years of Food and Drug Administration rejections for public release. But the profit potential of a no-calorie all-purpose sweetener proved irresistible, especially when cyclamate—the industry standard of the day—was banned in 1970, and negative reports of saccharin were circulating as well.

         Faced with continued FDA intransigence, Rumsfeld announced at a sales meeting in January 1981 that he would begin applying pressure for FDA approval through political connections rather than continued pursuit of conventional channels. As a member of President-elect Reagan’s transition team, Rumsfeld facilitated the appointment of Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. as Reagan’s Commissioner of the FDA. (Hayes resigned under ethics charges two years later and joined Searle’s PR firm—yet another revolving door.)

         Hayes went to work on the aspartame issue, and within four months took unilateral action that granted FDA approval for the public release of aspartame. This astonishing action overruled the objections of FDA scientists, Hayes’ subordinates, and a Public Board of Inquiry, and ignored 16 years of research-based opinions and actions that had continuously rejected the chemical as unfit for human consumption.

         Searle’s 1981 profits surged to over $130 million, and the company’s sale to agribusiness giant Monsanto in 1985 netted Rumsfeld a reported $12 million. Rumsfeld’s Searle parachute and other corporate ventures brought estimates of his personal wealth up to well over $100 million by the time he spun back through the revolving door to become GW Bush’s secretary of defense.

    http://www.rense.com/general33/legal.htm

     it was tough medicine New York Times January 31, 1982

166 Select “Montanto’s government ties” at http://www.organicconsumers.org/monsanto/news.cfm

167 Updates on farmers’ battles with Monsanto are at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/prison051403.cfm

169 In one instance, Bush appointed Daniel Troy as the FDA’s general counsel. Troy was formerly a leading attorney for major drug companies who had repeatedly sued the FDA on his clients’ behalf. One would like to believe that a person with relevant experience in a particular sector would provide especially insightful service to an agency regulating that sector. Once at FDA, however, Troy offered to use the agency’s resources to help his former clients fight lawsuits by injured patients.

    “When Advocates Become Regulators” Anne C. Mulkern Denver Post May 24, 2004, as cited in It Can Happen Here—Authoritarian Peril in the Age of Bush Joe Conason (2007 St. Martin’s Press) 141

170 “The Deep State Hiding in Plain Sight”

    Bill Moyers & Company February 21, 2014 http://billmoyers.com/episode/the-deep-state-hiding-in-plain-sight/

171 “Obama Admin’s TPP Trade Officials Received Hefty Bonuses From Big Banks” Lee Fang Republic Report February 17, 2014 http://www.republicreport.org/2014/big-banks-tpp/

173 When Corporations Rule the World David Korten (1995 Kumarian Press) Chapter 18 “Race to the Bottom” 229-237

174 Quote from Roosevelt’s acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, June 27, 1936 The Great Quotations George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 591

175 At the age of 20, Brandeis graduated from Harvard Law School with the highest grade average in the college’s history. He was a Supreme Court Justice for 23 years ending 1939. The quote is from the October 17, 1941 issue of Labor. The Great Quotations

    George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart)

176 See Senator Elizabeth Warren explain this system of wealth concentration at https://secure.actblue.com/contribute/page/warrenaflspeech/?refcode=CEW010715EJ

    When Corporations Rule the World  David Korten (1995 Kumarian Press)

    Myth America—Democracy vs. Capitalism William Boyer (2003 Apex Press)

    You Call This a Democracy? Who Benefits, Who Pays and Who Really Decides? Paul Kivel (2004 Apex Press)

    The War at Home—The Corporate Offensive from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush Jack Rasmus (2006 Kyklos Productions)

177 The extreme financial wealth of this group is usually concealed within figures reporting larger group averages. For example, the highest income group delineated in Department of Labor reports is the top third, which merges incomes of approximately $75,000 with incomes into the tens of millions, designating the whole group as the rich. Similarly, national economic statistics often conceal wide disparities. Between 2002 and 2006, for example, US growth in real income was reported to be 2.8 percent; however, this 2.8 percent figure averaged the 11.0 percent gains of the top 1 percent with the 0.9 percent gain realized by the bottom 99 percent.

    See the following reports and analyses:

    “It's the Inequality, Stupid—Eleven charts that explain what's wrong with America.” Dave Gilson and Carolyn Perot Mother Jones March/April 2011

    “Survival” Mother Jones September-October 2014 32-35

    Capital in the Twenty-First Century Thomas Piketty & Arthur Goldhammer (2014 Harvard University Press) Piketty sets today’s economic inequality in a long history of economic disparity and demonstrates that increasing economic inequality is a built in feature of the capitalist system.

    The War at Home—The Corporate Offensive from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush Jack Rasmus (2006 Kyklos Productions) Rasmus’ work summarized at http://www.kyklosproductions.com/posts/index.php?p=57

    UC Berkeley economics professor Emmanuel Saez analyses are at:

    http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~saez/

    http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~saez/saez-UStopincomes-2006prel.pdf

178 Rich Media, Poor Democracy—Communication Politics in Dubious Times Robert W. McChesney (1999 The New Press) 264

179 For example, campaign strategy along with polls and voter mood were the dominant focus in three-fourths of the political segments on the nightly news broadcasts of network television during the 2008 presidential primary. In contrast, issues were the dominant frame in just five percent of the news segments.

         In a total of 385 news segments during the 2008 presidential primary, the two categories of “campaign analysis and strategy” and “polls and voter mood” combined to be the dominant frame in 76 percent of the segments on the nightly news broadcasts of ABC, CBS, and NBC.

         US citizens do not appreciate this coverage; nearly three-fourths of the electorate want more information on candidates’ positions on domestic issues and foreign policy.

    The Problem of the Media—U.S. Communication Politics in the 21st Century Robert W. McChesney (2004 Monthly Review Press) 126 http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=3368

181 The Center for Responsive Politics’ website is a comprehensive source of current and historical data about money in US politics.  http://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/

182 The Problem of the Media—U.S. Communication Politics in the 21st Century Robert W. McChesney (2004 Monthly Review Press) 131

186 See endnote 181

187 Blowing the Roof Off the Twenty-First Century—Media, Politics, and the Struggle for Post-Capitalist Democracy Robert W. McChesney (2014 Monthly Review Press) 15

190 For concise details, see an interview with The Nation’s John Nichols and the Center for Media and Democracy’s Lisa Graves at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdENM29UQDU

191 Center for Media and Democracy at http://www.prwatch.org/

     Special ALEC web site at http://alecexposed.org/wiki/ALEC_Exposed

194 Loser Take All—Election Fraud and the Subversion of Democracy, 2000-2008 Mark Crispin Miller, Ed. (2008 Ig Publishing)

    The Best Democracy Money Can Buy—The Truth About Corporate Cons, Globalization, and High-Finance Fraudsters Greg Palast (2004 (Expanded Election Edition) Plume Books) Chapter 9 “Oil-slick Jim, the third ring and one million missing ballots”

    Was the 2004 Presidential Election Stolen?—Exit Polls, Election Fraud, and the Official Count Steven F. Freeman & Joel Bleifuss (2006 Seven Stories Press)

    What Happened in Ohio?—A Documentary Record of Theft and Fraud in the 2004 Election Robert J. Fitrakis, Steven Rosenfeld, and Harvey Wasserman (2006 New Press)

    “The Sale of Electoral Politics” Censored 2005—The Top Censored Stories Peter Phillips & Project Censored (2004 Seven Stories Press) 57-60

    “No Paper Trail Left Behind: The Theft of the 2004 Presidential Election” Censored 2006—The Top Censored Stories

    Peter Phillips & Project Censored (2005 Seven Stories Press) 185-201

195 Black Box Voting—Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century Bev Harris with David Allen (2003 Plan Nine Publishing) 34-39

196 This and more information on ALEC is now located at

197 The American Prospect July/August 2011 27

198 “Publicopoly Exposed—How ALEC, the Koch brothers and their corpo­rate allies plan to privatize government” In These Times August 2011 16-17

201 “AMA Study Shows Competition Disappearing in the Health Insurance Industry”

     http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/health-insurance-competition.page

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_insurance_in_the_United_States

202 Deadly Spin—An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans

    Wendell Potter (2010 Bloomsbury Press) 125-130, 134

203 Potter concluded a June 2009 testimony before the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation:

    “Americans need and overwhelmingly support the option of obtaining coverage from a public plan. The industry and its backers are using fear tactics, as they did in 1994 [during the Clinton’s reform initiative], to tar a transparent, publicly-accountable health care option as a ‘government-run system.’ But what we have today, Mr. Chairman, is a Wall Street-run system that has proven itself an untrustworthy partner to its customers, to the doctors and hospitals who deliver care, and to the state and federal governments that attempt to regulate it.”

    Deadly Spin—An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans Wendell Potter (2010 Bloomsbury Press) 6

     See Bill Moyers’ interview of Potter and link to his congressional testimony of June 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07102009/profile.html

204 Ibid. (Potter) at 203

207 FreedomWorks stands opposed to: industrial and environmental regulation; progressive taxation; social safety-net programs; universal civil rights; estate taxes; and tort liability. Its favored causes are: government-to-business subsidies; privatizing Social Security; lower investment and capital gains taxes; and expanded school voucher programs.   http://www.freedomworks.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreedomWorks

208 The Rise of the Tea Party—Political Discontent and Corporate Media in the Age of Obama Anthony DiMaggio 2011 Monthly Review Press) 211

209 “The troubling history of Tea Party leader Dick Armey”

     Beau Hodai In These Times, March 21, 2010

213 A Bulletin of Insectology report concludes, “the results from this study show a profound and devastating effect of low levels of [neonics] on honey bee colonies.” Bulletin of Insectology 65 (1) 99-106 2012 www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol65-2012-099-106lu.pdf

    European Food Safety Authority Journal January 16, 2013 http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/jan/16/insecticide-unacceptable-danger-bees

214 A concise summary of the CCD saga can be found in “A Deadly Disorder at the EPA” Joel Bleifuss In These Times March 2013 20-21 http://inthesetimes.com/article/14598/a_deadly_disorder_at_the_epa/

215 These six corporations control 74 percent of the global pesticide market and 49 percent of the proprietary seed market. Ibid. at 21

217 An internet search for these corporations or people can verify their current earnings. The information here was found in February 2013. Listed by corporation, CEO, earnings, and year cited: Monsanto, Hugh Grant, $10 million, 2009; DuPont, Ellen Kullman, $11.3 million, 2010; Bayer, Marijn Dekkers, $8.61 million, 2008; Dow, Andrew Liveris, $21 million, 2011; BASF, Kurt Bock, $6.8 million (€5.25 million) 2011; Syngenta, Michael Mack, $5.4 million, 2010

219 All Governments Lie!—The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone Myra MacPherson (2006 Scribner) 381

220 Nemesis: The last days of the American Republic

    Chalmers Johnson (2006 Metropolitan Books) 93 

221 Gentleman Spy—The Life of Allen Dulles

    Peter Gross (1994 Houghton Mifflin) 293

222 Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair

    Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 129

223 The Secret Team—The CIA and Its Allies In Control of the United States and the World L. Fletcher Prouty (1973 Prentice-Hall);

    JFK and the Unspeakable: Why he Died and Why it Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 197

224 A 1976 congressional inquiry estimated the number at 50, but Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post estimated the number closer to 400.

    The Mighty Wurlitzer—How the CIA Played America Hugh Wilford

    (2008 Harvard University Press) 225-229

226 Brothers—The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years

    David Talbot (2007 Free Press) 7

227 The Secret Team—The CIA and Its Allies In Control of the United States and the World L. Fletcher Prouty (1973 Prentice-Hall) 117

228 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 84, 159, 414n26, 414n26,

229 There are now 16 agencies in the US intelligence apparatus, with covert surveillance and operations often unknown even to Congress. It seems likely that the CIA’s sprinkling of covert agents into various government sectors and media outlets has continued since its inception in the 1950s.

230 Strictly Personal—A Memoir

    John S. D. Eisenhower (1974 Doubleday & Company) 270;

    Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair

    Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 65

231 At 21 years of age, Dwight David Eisenhower enrolled at the West Point Naval Academy in 1911, commencing a military career that would span both world wars and culminate in his promotion to Supreme Allied Commander in December 1943. Following WWII, Eisenhower served as military governor of the US occupation zone before moving to Washington to become Army Chief of Staff in November 1945.

         Once in Washington, powerful business leaders courted the WWII hero, providing him with rare opportunities for social and economic advancement. They invited him to join their clubs and helped him select new clothes and financial investments. Eisenhower’s new Ivy League associates included Allen Dulles; the two were members of a study group at the Council on Foreign Relations in 1949. “Ike” was also invited into the Bohemian Club, famous for their Bohemian Grove gatherings of some of the world’s richest, most powerful men.

         But for a man driven to serve his country and all humanity, Eisenhower found the chief of staff position unfulfilling. When offered the presidency of Columbia University by IBM chair and Columbia Trustee Thomas Watson, Eisenhower accepted in June 1947, hoping that Columbia would provide a new forum in which he might influence public opinion.

         At President Truman’s request, Eisenhower took leave from Columbia in 1950 to become Supreme Commander of the new North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), but returned to the US when drafted as the Republican Party’s presidential nominee in 1952.

    The Declassified Eisenhower—A Divided Legacy of Peace and Political Warfare Blanche Wiesen Cook (1984 Penguin) 60-62

232 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press);

    Waging Peace 1956-1961
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 265-266

233 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 499, 910-911

234 Khrushchev states in his second volume of memoirs: “I know there are now quite a few loudmouths who go around throwing dust in people’s eyes, clouding up the issue, trying to extort money from the government to build aircraft carriers. ‘Look how many carriers the US has!’ they say. ‘Look how many England has! And France! We’re a great country, aren’t we? Therefore we should have aircraft carriers, too.’ Well, my answer to that is: nonsense.”

    Khrushchev Remembers—The Last Testament

    Strobe Talbott, editor (1974 Little, Brown and Company) 34, 519-520

235 Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 544

236 Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair

    Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 132

237 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 54;

    Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair

    Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 133

238 Ibid. (Beschloss) at 150-151

239 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 47

240 Rather than bringing Powers’ plane over from Incirlik Air Base in Turkey, to the CIA’s airstrip at Peshawar, Pakistan, until the flight took place, “we were trying something new. Chiefly for security, to reduce plane exposure, we were ferrying it to Peshawar the night prior to flight, then, should the flight not take place as scheduled, for weather or some other reason, we would ferry it back to Incirlik.”

         This “security” and “exposure” rationale defies reason. How could daily round-trip flights offer less exposure than leaving the airplane sheltered at the Peshawar airstrip, ready for takeoff? This routine also contradicts another of Powers’ remarks: “Taking off from one base and landing at another required two ground crews, doubling personnel, preparation, and risk of exposure.” (emphasis added)

        At any rate, repeated ferrying of the best plane (due to several flight postponements) resulted in enough air time to ground the “best plane we had” for routine maintenance.

    Operation Overflight—The U-2 spy pilot tells his story for the first time Francis Gary Powers with Curt Gentry (1970 Tower) 75-77)

241 Ibid. at 78 Indeed, 360 had achieved world headlines the prior September, when a test pilot had run out of fuel over Japan and made an emergency landing before a camera-toting audience on a glider club’s airstrip.

242 “It was an abort situation, and I had to make a decision. . . At maximum altitude, the fastest the plane could go was very close to the slowest it could go. This narrow range was known as the ‘coffin corner.’ . . . the exact speed required a great deal of attention.”

         Additionally, without the auto-pilot, high-altitude speed fluctuations could cause an engine flameout, and a restart would require a descent into thicker air—the haunt of Soviet MiG fighter jets. Ibid. at 83-84 & 34

243 Ibid. at 83-84

244 This is not surprising. The U-2’s design traded off structural stability for ultra-high altitude capability. For example, its tail assembly was attached to the fuselage by only three bolts. In 1956, pilot Howard Carey was killed when his U-2 broke up merely from the turbulence of nearby Canadian Saber Jets. See Bridge of Spies—A true Story of the Cold War Giles Whittell (2010 Broadway) 119

245 Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 543

246 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 48

247 Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair

    Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 37

248 The diary of New York Times foreign correspondent C. L. Sulzberger is revealing: “Dulles is sure Gary Powers was not shot down at normal altitude (about 70,000 feet). The U-2, when it reaches rarefied altitudes, tends to get a flameout. We think Powers glided down to try and restart his motor. He was then shot down around 30,000-40,000 feet. Present Soviet defenses don’t go above 60,000 feet. We think Powers parachuted.”

    Mayday—Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair Michael R. Beschloss (1986 Harper & Row) 356;

    JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, and the plot to assassinate John F. Kennedy

    L. Fletcher Prouty (1996 Kensington Publishing) 100

249 Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 548

250 Strictly Personal—A Memoir

    John S. D. Eisenhower (1974 Doubleday & Company) 270;

    Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 52

251 Ibid. (Bamford) at 58-59

252 These efforts required the act of perjury on the part of some Cabinet members and, had it been discovered, a subordination of perjury investigation of the President himself. CIA agent Richard Helms, who witnessed the hearings, said in 1983 of these testimonies, “They were all sworn. Knowing what they knew and what actually went on, if it isn’t perjury I don’t understand the meaning of the word.” Helms would know. In 1977, he had been convicted of perjury and sentenced to two years in prison for statements made to this same committee over the CIA’s involvement in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état (chapter 1). Ibid. at 314

253 It was also widely assumed that each U-2 was sanitized of all incriminating identification—another misunderstanding that had been allowed to persist. When the Soviets showed Powers the wreckage of 360 following his capture, he was astounded to discover that the aircraft was not sanitized at all. The engine was stamped “Pratt & Whitney,” and the destruct unit was labeled “destructor unit, Beck and Whitley, Inc.”

    Operation Overflight—The U-2 spy pilot tells his story for the first time Francis Gary Powers with Curt Gentry (1970 Tower) 139

254 See this chapter’s epigraph. Also, some assumed that U-2 pilots’ handsome salaries of $30,000 (over $200,000 in 2010 dollars) were in part justified by the extreme risk involved.

255 In 1964, Eisenhower explored both these matters while compiling the second volume of his presidential memoirs, Waging Peace. The CIA recorded and transcribed Eisenhower’s questioning of then-CIA Director John McCone. “. . . As I understood it, I mean, as was told me all those years by both Bissell and by Allen [Dulles], this thing that the plane could never be recovered—it had self-destruction built in it and also they were—they assured me there was really no fear of ever getting back a live pilot if it was knocked down by a hostile action in Russia. . . . And the whole cover story was built on the basis that the man would never survive.” McCone replied, “I realize that and I realized it at the time, but it was absolutely wrong.” Eisenhower then said, “I don’t want to be accusing people of having fooled me. But I do know that they told me that the possibility of anyone surviving—matter of fact, that’s the reason I argued against putting out the cover story, and they said, ‘You just don’t have to worry, General. It is perfectly all right because there’s nobody there.’ That’s all.”

    Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 546

256 “Annex to the report of DCI Ad hoc Panel on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program,” August 25, 1959, Dwight David Eisenhower Presidential Library, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box 15, as cited in Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 46

257 Waging Peace 1956-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1965 Doubleday) 546

258 The Sorrows of Empire—Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic Chalmers Johnson (2004 Metropolitan Books) 41-42

259 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 215-216;

    The Bay of Pigs Howard Jones (2008 Oxford University Press) 9-10

260 The CIA in Guatemala—The Foreign Policy of Intervention

    Richard H. Immerman (1982 University of Texas Press) 195

262 New York Times October 23, 1959

263 New York Times February 20, 1960

264 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 192

265 Bissell wrote in his memoirs, “My philosophy during my last two or three years in the agency was very definitely that the end justified the means.” 

         Accordingly, Bissell obtained various poisons and delivery systems from the CIA’s Sidney Gottlieb (a.k.a. Dr. Death) and contracted Mafia figures Johnny Roselli (protégé of Al Capone), Sam Giancana (godfather of the Chicago Outfit), and Santo Trafficante (godfather of the Mafia’s southern branch) to orchestrate the assassination. When the combined efforts of the Mafiosi produced no results, more creative measures were proposed in the spring of 1962. 

         The head of the CIA’s Special Affairs Staff, Desmond Fitzgerald, suggested giving Castro a botulism-infected scuba-diving suit and other ideas such as planting an attractively noticeable seashell rigged with explosives in the waters where Castro enjoyed skin diving. There were more conventional attempts as well. An exile-piloted B-26 attempted to bomb a baseball stadium where Castro was speaking on November 20, 1964, but was diverted by Cuban anti-aircraft fire. Despite these and other failed efforts, Castro’s assassination remained an integral part of the CIA’s overall Cuban plan.

    Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs

    Richard M. Bissell (1996 Yale University Press) 157-158

    The Bay of Pigs Declassified—The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba Peter Kornbluh, Ed. (1998 New Press) 267-268

    The Bay of Pigs Howard Jones (2008 Oxford University Press) 13, 22-29

    Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 189

    Bay of Pigs—The Untold Story

    Peter Wyden (1979 Simon and Schuster) 109-110

    See also Fabian Escalante’s Executive Action: 638 Ways to Kill Castro (2006 Ocean Press), which became a British Channel 4 documentary.

266 Miami Herald August 11, 2005, as cited in Brothers—The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years David Talbot (2007 Free Press) 47, and http://havanajournal.com/politics/entry/bay_of_pigs_us_invades_cuba_failure_on_many_levels/

267 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 73

268 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 247

    Bay of Pigs—The Untold Story

    Peter Wyden (1979 Simon and Schuster) 139

269 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 93, 291

272 Bay of Pigs—The Untold Story

    Peter Wyden (1979 Simon and Schuster) 155

273 Among the implausible aspects of the defection story were these:

         Zuñiga’s status as a Captain in Castro’s air force was immediately suspect when he jumped out of his plane in a white T-shirt, khaki pants, and a baseball cap.

         Reporters converging on the plane discovered that, contrary to Zuñiga’s tale of his attacks on Castro military assets, the plane’s machine guns carried full rounds and had not been fired in flight.

         US officials stated that the pilot’s identity would not be revealed for fear of reprisal against his family still in Cuba. And just how long would it take Castro to determine which one of his air force captains was missing, along with his plane?

         Zuñiga’s B-26 bore a fresh coat of paint, shiny new Cuban insignia, and had a solid metal nose cone. All Castro’s B-26s showed their age and had Plexiglas nose cones.

         The CIA had implemented a back-up plan: in case the Miami deception failed or needed further endorsement, a second B-26 piloted by two more Cuban exiles had landed in Key West the same morning. The unrevealed identities of all three defectors in addition to rumors that they had quickly departed the US (where they were supposedly seeking asylum) gave credence to Castro’s claim that they were, in fact, rebels who had flown from US training camps in Latin America.

         The lie of the Miami and Key West performances was amplified by a landing the prior day in Jacksonville—a real defection! Castro’s personal pilot and the pilot’s brother had touched down in a tattered plane with Plexiglas nose cone that bore strikingly little resemblance to the freshly painted, metal-nosed counterfeits in Miami and Key West.

    The Bay of Pigs Howard Jones (2008 Oxford University Press) 76-82;

    Bay of Pigs—The Untold Story Peter Wyden (1979 Simon and Schuster) 174-176

274 Decision for Disaster—The Battle of the Bay of Pigs

    Grayston L. Lynch (2003 Pocket Books)

276 The Bay of Pigs Declassified—The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba Peter Kornbluh, Ed. (1998 New Press) 15

277 Robert Kennedy and His Times Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1978 Ballantine Books) 486, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 15

278 Merton was a Trappist monk, Catholic priest, and the author of over 70 books on spirituality, social justice, and pacifism.

    Letters from Tom: A Selection of Letters from Father Thomas Merton, Monk of Gethsemani, to W. H. Ferry, 1961-1968 W. H. Ferry, ed. (1983 Fort Hill Press) 15, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 11

279 Ibid. (Douglass) at 235

280 New York Times March 24, 1961

281 JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) xxiii

    The militarists did not give up; see Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) Chapter 21 “Laos 1957-1973—L’Armée Clandestine

282 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 428

284 New York Times April 25, 1966

285 Khrushchev’s memoir states that he believed Eisenhower to be a “good man,” but that he was “much too dependent on his advisors.” At the 1955 Geneva conference, Khrushchev watched JF Dulles “making notes with a pencil, . . . sliding them under President Eisenhower’s hand. Eisenhower would . . . read them before making a decision on any matter that came up.”

         At this same conference, Khrushchev had hopes that Eisenhower and the Soviet minister of defense “would have a chance to talk alone together and that they would exchange views about the need for peaceful coexistence. But that vicious cur Dulles was always prowling around Eisenhower, snapping at him if he got out of line. Dulles could not tolerate the idea of peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union.” Khrushchev Remembers Strobe Talbott, editor (1970 Little, Brown and Company) 397-398

287 In September 1961, General Lucius Clay (the President’s personal representative in Berlin) ordered the secret construction of a barricade that duplicated the design and strength of the Berlin Wall. Located in an isolated German forest, US tanks fitted with bulldozer blades conducted experimental assaults on the demonstration wall. These rehearsals ended when discovered by the commander of US forces in Europe, but not before the Soviet KGB had discovered and filmed the exercises.

         While the Kremlin feared that the Western powers were preparing to bulldoze their border installations, it appears that President Kennedy was never informed of these events.

    Khrushchev Remembers Strobe Talbott, editor (1970 Little, Brown and Company) 459;  JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 110

288 Khrushchev Remembers Strobe Talbott, editor

    (1970 Little, Brown and Company) Chapter 17 “The Berlin Crisis” 452-460

289 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) Chapter 15;

    JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters
James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 109-113

290 “Steel: A 72-Hour Drama With an All-Star Cast”

    New York Times April 23, 1962

291 Ibid.

292 James Douglass writes: “John and Robert Kennedy had become notorious in the ranks of big business. JFK’s strategy of withdrawing defense contracts and [the Robert Kennedy Justice Department’s] aggressive investigating tactics toward men of power were seen as unforgivable sins by the corporate world. . . . a bitter gap opened up between Kennedy and big business, whose most powerful elements coincided with the military-industrial complex.”

    JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 140;

    A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 635

293 Khrushchev further observed—true enough—that “The United States had already surrounded the Soviet Union with its own bomber bases and missiles.” So with the Cuban installations, the US “would learn just what it feels like to have enemy missiles pointing at you.” Khrushchev Remembers Strobe Talbott, editor (1970 Little, Brown and Company) 488-505

294 JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 21

295 New York Times, October 23, 1962

296 The Air Force launched an intercontinental ballistic missile from California’s Vandenberg Air Base on Friday, October 26, 1962. The ICBM was an unarmed test missile destined for the Marshall Islands; however, its launch during the Cuban crisis was an unmistakable provocation. Had the Soviets launched a response to the ICBM, it is unlikely that Kennedy would have been able to prevent the release of missiles in the US arsenal.

         Also during the crisis, US airborne-alert bombers flew past their customary turnaround points and entered Soviet airspace. This was an unambiguous threat that Soviet radar operators would certainly have recognized and reported. During this same critical period, a U-2 on a routine mission from Alaska to the North Pole wandered out over the Soviet Union, attracting the attention of Soviet MiGs.

    The Limits of Safety Scott D. Sagan (1993 Princeton University Press) 79, and The New Yorker June 19, 1995, both as cited in

    JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters
James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 27-28, 396 n103 & n104;

     A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 828

297 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 117-118

298 Arthur Schlesinger recalled, “We had no choice, it was argued, but a military response, and our tactical analysis had already shown that strikes at the bases would be little use without strikes at the airfields . . . it could hardly stop short of invasion.” A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 827

299 Khrushchev Remembers

    Strobe Talbott, editor (1970 Little, Brown and Company) 497-498

300 Undersecretary of State Averell Harriman told Arthur Schlesinger on Thursday, October 25, “Khrushchev is sending us desperate signals to get us to help take him off the hook. He is sending messages exactly as he did to Eisenhower directly after the U-2 Affair. In view of these signals from Khrushchev, the worst mistake we can possibly make is to get tougher and to escalate. . . . Incidents—stopping of ships, etc.—will begin the process of escalation, engage Soviet prestige, and reduce the chances of a peaceful resolution.” Harriman refers here to Khrushchev’s public statements suggesting that the CIA was responsible for the Soviet overflights and that Eisenhower was probably unaware of the incursions.

    “U.S. Mission to the UN, Confidential/Limited Distribution memorandum, Schlesinger to Stevenson,” as cited in Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 116-117, 497, 677n116

301 “One Hell of a Gamble”—Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy 1958-1964 Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali (1997 W. W. Norton & Company) 240-315; JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 30

302 Ibid. (Douglass) at 57-58

303 New York Times April 6, 1963

304 A New York Times front-page headline on April 17, 1963 announced, cuban exile chief accuses the u.s. of defaming him. The following day’s headline read, cuban exile chief quits with attack on kennedy.

305 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 82-83

307 Foreign Relations of the United States 1961-1963 Volume X (1994 US Government Printing Office) 21, as cited in

    JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 98, 410n15

308 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 87

309 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 893, 895

311 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 904

312 President Kennedy: Profile of Power Richard Reeves (1994 Simon & Schuster) 550, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 51, 401 n208

313 The Best and the Brightest David Halberstam (1972 Random House) 295-296, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 220, 434n5

314 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 912

315 Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered E. F. Schumacher (1973)http://thinkexist.com/search/searchquotation.asp?search=Any+intelligent+fool&q=

316 People’s History of the United States

    Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 460-462

317 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 122-123

318 People’s History of the United States

    Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 462

319 New York Times April 11, 1954

320 Khrushchev’s memoir states, “All would have been well if everyone had adhered to the commitments of the Geneva Accords. . . . But the that sinister man [JF] Dulles and the United States stepped in and imposed a long, bloody war on the Vietnamese people . . .” Khrushchev Remembers

    Strobe Talbott, editor (1970 Little, Brown and Company)

321 The Pentagon Papers V2 22, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—

    Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 105, 411n59

322 Lansdale had just stage-managed the “election” of Philippine dictator Ramon Magsaysay, whose merciless rule would control the Philippine masses while US industries mined the region’s lumber and mineral resources. Lansdale’s CIA adventures supplied raw material for the novels/films The Ugly American and The Quiet American.

    Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 39-44

323 Northern Catholics were targeted with pamphlets proclaiming, “Christ has gone to the South” and “The Virgin Mary has departed from the North.” Pamphlets and an almanac of bogus astrological predictions were widely disseminated to generate fear of communist rule in the north and favorably portray life in the south.

    The Two Vietnams Bernard Fall (1967 Frederick A. Praeger) 153-154, and The Pentagon Papers New York Times edition (1971 Bantam Books), both as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 125, 409n25, 409n26

    Text and photos of this event in JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, and the plot to assassinate John F. Kennedy L. Fletcher Prouty (1996 Kensington Publishing) Chapter 6

324 Before a House Subcommittee on Government Operations in 1971, CIA officer William Colby was asked, “Are you certain that we know a member of the [Vietcong] from a loyal member of the South Vietnam citizenry?” Colby replied, “No Mr. Congressman, I am not.” (Colby ran the CIA’s Phoenix Program under which at least 25,000 Vietnamese citizens were rounded up and slaughtered over seven years ending in 1972. Colby was promoted to CIA director in 1973.)

    The Two Vietnams Bernard Fall (Frederick A. Praeger, 1967);

    U.S Assistance Program in Vietnam Hearings before a Subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations July 19 1971 189, both as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 131, 410n53

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Program

325 A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House

    Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 538

326 The Pentagon Papers V2 70, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 105

327 People’s History of the United States

    Howard Zinn (1980 Harper & Row) 468

328 Ibid. at 469;

    Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 132-133

329 Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers Daniel Ellsberg 2002 Viking) 193, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 108

330 The Pentagon Papers V2 67, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 106

331 Ibid. (Douglass) at 129-131

335 Body of Secrets—The Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency James Bamford (2002 Anchor Books) 295-297

336 Ibid. at 295-298

337 The Uncensored War—The Media and Vietnam

    Daniel C. Hallin (1989 University of California Press) 16-17

338 The Politics of Lying—Government Deception, Secrecy, and Power

    David Wise (1973 Random House) 29

340 See any internet search for “JFK polls.”

341 Breach of Trust—How the Warren Commission Failed the Nation and Why Gerald D. McKnight (2005 University Press of Kansas) 182

342 A United Press International report stated, “Dr. Malcolm Perry, 34 years old, said ‘there was an entrance wound below his Adam’s apple.’”

    New York Times November 23, 1963, 2

343 House Select Committee interviewer Bob Kelley’s notes on June 6, 1975, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 308-310, 465n555-556

344 Warren Commission Hearings, V6 p42, V3 p362, 273, V6 p25-26

345 JFK: Conspiracy of Silence (1992 Signet) was revised, expanded, and republished as Trauma Room One—The JFK Medical Coverup Exposed

    Charles A. Crenshaw (2001 Paraview Press) Chapter 2 and the Appendix “Photographs, Illustrations, and Tables” (265-286)

346 Navy medical corpsman Paul O’Connor assisted the doctors with the autopsy. Regarding the neck wound, O’Connor later stated, “[Admiral Galloway] stopped anybody from going further. Drs. Humes and Boswell, [and] Dr. Finck, were told to leave it alone, let’s go to other things.”
In the Eye of History
William Matson Law with Allan Eaglesham (2005 JFK Lancer Productions and Publications) 39-45, as cited in JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 311-321, 465n575-576

347 JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

     James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books);

     Legacy of Secrecy—The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination

     Lamar Waldron with Thom Hartmann (Counterpoint 2008);

    Brothers—The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years

    David Talbot (2007 Free Press)

348 In addition to Dallas, there was an assassination trap in Chicago, where an emotionally unstable ex-Marine with a CIA background—exactly the mold of Oswald—had been provided a job in a warehouse overlooking a presidential motorcade route. The plan was thwarted when Kennedy cancelled his November 2 Chicago campaign stop in response to Secret Service intelligence of the plot. (For the media, the trip cancellation was attributed to the news of Diem’s assassination the same day.)

         Similarly, an assassin was discovered in Tampa, just prior to the President’s November 18 Florida campaign sweep—a person sharing no less than 18 career and personal parallels with Oswald, including a CIA background and employment along the scheduled route of a Kennedy motorcade.

    Ibid. (Douglass) at 202-207, 213-217

    Ibid (Waldron and Hartmann) at Chapter 5

349 Breach of Trust—How the Warren Commission Failed the Nation and Why Gerald D. McKnight (2005 University Press of Kansas) 355

350 In The Dark Side of Camelot (1997 Little, Brown and Company), Seymour Hersh explains other personal and political priorities of Bobby Kennedy during this time.

351 The Political Economy of Media—Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas Robert W. McChesney (2008 Monthly Review Press) 98

352 Much information in this section is from
U.S. Television News and Cold War Propaganda, 1947-1960
Nancy E. Bernhard (2003 Cambridge University Press)

353 Fulbright joined the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1949, and became its longest-serving chair (1959–1974). Rhodes Scholar, and former University of Arkansas president, Fulbright was the only senator to vote against the congressional appropriation supporting McCarthy’s anti-communism committee. Fulbright was also the lone voice denouncing the CIA’s Bay of Pigs plan at Kennedy’s pivotal meeting of top advisors two weeks before the invasion. A Thousand Days—John F. Kennedy in the White House Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1965 Houghton Mifflin) 251

354 The Pentagon’s share of this munificence had funded efforts that included a bureau of high-ranking military speakers, a literary agency promoting militaristic perspectives to media outlets, and a special projects division providing parachute jumpers and military bands for public events.

    The Pentagon Propaganda Machine
J. W. Fulbright (1970 Liveright) 25, 27, 33-34

355 Robert Parry, Consortium News founder and author of Neck Deep: The Disastrous Presidency of George W. Bush (2007 Media Consortium), chronicles the continuation of this divide from the Carter era forward at http://consortiumnews.com/2012/04/23/mitt-romney-professional-liar/

356 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 290

357 Ibid. at 292

358 20 Years of Censored News Carl Jensen and Project Censored (1997 Seven Stories Press) “The Top Ten Stories of 1987” 203-205

359 Webb’s awards included a 1990 Pulitzer Prize and a 1996 Journalist of the Year recognition from the Bay Area Society of Professional Journalists. Webb’s exposés were credited with crooked politicians’ removal from office, fines levied against corrupt corporations, and the exposure of organized crime in the Kentucky coal industry.

361 The Oakland and Los Angeles City Councils and both California senators joined the chorus, as well as the Congressional Black Caucus, Jesse Jackson, and the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Into the Buzzsaw—Leading Journalists Expose the Myth of a Free Press Kristina Borjesson, editor (2002 Prometheus Books) 301-305

362 On September 24, 1996, Christopher Matthews interviewed Webb on his CNBC show, attempting to discover errors in the Dark Alliance story. Matthews challenged Webb on various details, but Webb bested the television host at every turn. Webb later reported that Matthews stormed off the set following the interview, berating his staff, “This is outrageous. I’ve been sabotaged.”
Whiteout—The CIA, Drugs and the Press

    Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair 1999 Verso) 29, 32-33

363 Ibid. at 33-37

364 Ibid. at 37-38

365 Into the Buzzsaw—Leading Journalists Expose the Myth of a Free Press Kristina Borjesson, editor (2002 Prometheus Books) 305

366 Whiteout—The CIA, Drugs and the Press

    Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair 1999 Verso) 45

367 Britt stated, “Columnists, cabdrivers and corner philosophers say [Webb’s] series proves what some African Americans have long believed: The government purposely planted killer drugs in the black community. That the CIA could so cruelly discount black citizens’ lives to fight communism abroad is obscene.” Thus, Britt’s article disparaged Webb for a claim that he never made, namely that a purpose of the CIA-Contra drug operation was to destroy the lives of African Americans. (And on the side, Britt reminds readers that the CIA is fighting communism abroad.)

368 Married to Federal Reserve Board Chair Alan Greenspan, Alexander Cockburn referred to Mitchell as “about as snugly ensconced a member of the Washington elite as you could hope to find.” Ibid. at 31

369 In one effort to dismiss the entire affair, the Washington Post’s Walter Pincus (a former CIA associate) asserted that a reported five tons of cocaine was not enough to make a difference in the South Central Los Angeles situation, because it wasn’t nearly enough to go around. (CIA and Justice Department reports that disproved Pincus’ assertions were classified beyond public reach at the time.)

    Into the Buzzsaw—Leading Journalists Expose the Myth of a Free Press Kristina Borjesson, editor (2002 Prometheus Books) 305

370 The day after press stories of this report were filed, the Justice Department announced that a public release of the report would damage current (but undisclosed) criminal investigations. This was an amazing feat. For 16 months, CIA and Justice Department assurances had defused calls for any investigations other than their own. Then, the CIA’s exoneration of itself made national headlines—without even a peek at the report that supposedly justified this pronouncement.

371 New York Times December 19, 1997

372 Whiteout—The CIA, Drugs and the Press

    Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair 1999 Verso) 42-43

373 Crossing the Rubicon—The Decline of the American Empire and the End of the Age of Oil Michael C. Ruppert (2004 New Society Publishers) 17

374 Ibid.

376 A television interview with Robert Parry of Consortium News summarizes Webb’s personal story at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0DAKBz2Sp0 

379 Again, I’m not making this up.

     See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fv28_q98Xe8

380 In another example of the revolving door, Nayirah’s handler at Hill & Knowlton (Vice President Lauri Fitz-Pegad), went on to become assistant commerce secretary in the Clinton administration.

382 Toxic Sludge is Good For You—Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry John Stauber & Sheldon Rampton (1995 Common Courage Press) Chapter 10 & p. 173

383 MacArthur’s Op-Ed is referenced on the Times’ web site in a “News Summary” entry, however the actual Op-Ed is not accessible—the only search failure I have encountered in the Times’ electronic archives. I found it on microfiche at the University of Washington’s Suzzallo Library in 2009.

         In 1992, MacArthur also published Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the 1991 Gulf War (Hill and Wang)

         The Times was the first US outlet to mention the new truth. The CBS program 60 Minutes was critical of the Nayirah story on January 19.

         The Nation carried the story on February 4, as did ABC World News Tonight on March 15.

     http://fair.org/extra-online-articles/20-stories-that-made-a-difference/

385 The Nation June 15, 2009

386 Why We Did It Rachel Maddow (2014 MSNBC)

    Maddow discusses the documentary with Jon Stewart at http://www.towleroad.com/2014/03/maddowiraq.html

387 Nemesis—The Last Days of the American Republic

    Chalmers Johnson (2006 Metropolitan Books) 98-99;

    The Road to 9/11—Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America

    Peter Dale Scott (2007 University of California Press) 192-3

393 The Political Economy of Media—enduring issues, emerging dilemmas, Robert W. McChesney (2008 Monthly Review Press) 111

394 Dixie Chicks singer Natalie Maines told a London audience, “we’re ashamed the President of the United States is from Texas.”

396 The New Media Monopoly Ben H Bagdikian (2004 Beacon Press) 1;

    The Political Economy of Media—Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas Robert W. McChesney (2008 Monthly Review Press) 178, 419

397 The New Media Monopoly Ben H Bagdikian (2004 Beacon Press) Chapter 2

398  “Americans spend 34 hours a week watching TV, according to Nielsen numbers” New York Daily News September 19, 2012;

    In the Absence of the Sacred—The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations Jerry Mander (1991 Sierra Club Books) Chapter 5, “Television (I): Audiovisual Training for the Modern World” 76

399 CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite was known for his nightly signoff, “And that’s the way it is . . . ,” a catchphrase that lent an air of authority not only to this highly trusted man, but to the television medium itself. Other positioning, such as the New York Times’ self-anointed “Newspaper of Record” moniker, lends a silent authority to the corporate mass media’s news and information.

400 “Brazilian Leader Hears Boos From Unusual Direction, the Left”

     New York Times January 28, 2005

401 “Tea Party vs. U.S. Social Forum” Julie Hollar

    Extra!—The Magazine of FAIR, The Media Watch Group September 2010

402 Ibid.

403 New York Times February 25, 2010

404 The Rise of the Tea Party—Political Discontent and Corporate Media in the Age of Obama Anthony DiMaggio (2011 Monthly Review Press) 47-48

405 Ibid. at 114

406 “National Equality vs. Tea Party” Julie Hollar

    Extra!—The Magazine of FAIR, The Media Watch Group December 2009

    “They Are the 1 Percent” Jim Naureckas Ibid., November 2011

407 When mentioning ALEC in other contexts, the Times described it as a little known, business-backed, or conservative group.  “Battle Lines Drawn Over Medicaid in Texas” New York Times November 11, 2010

    “Conservative Group Drafts, Promotes Anti-EPA Bills in State Legislatures” New York Times April 4, 2011

    The independents’ coverage is at http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/11603/ http://www.democracynow.org/2011/7/15/alec_exposed_state_legislative_bills_drafted

408 Following Martin’s murder on February 26, 2012, news of ALEC’s promotion of Florida’s Stand Your Ground law (used to defend Martin’s killer) took several weeks to appear in the Times (April 21, 2012).

409 Give Me Liberty—A Handbook for American Revolutionaries

     Naomi Wolf (2008 Simon & Schuster) 173-187;

     “The Progressive Interview: Bill Moyers”

     Peter Dreier The Progressive March 2014 23

410 Deliberation Day

    Bruce Ackerman and James S. Fishkin (2004 Yale University Press) 9

411 The Atlantic January 17, 2013

412 “McCaskill gets security boost after threat” CBS News, May 9, 2012;

    “Claire McCaskill Foe, A Tea Party Activist, Says, ‘We Have To Kill The Claire Bear’” Huffington Post May 8, 2012

413 “Surprised by Solidarity in Wisconsin—Media erred in assuming public shared their distaste for unions” and

    “Millionaire Pundit: Public Sector Pensions Are the Real Threat”

    Peter Hart Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting April 1, 2011, June 15, 2012

414 The underfunding of US public media resulted from a battle waged during the advent of radio, between 1927 and 1935. Corporate interests won this battle, and the regulatory and business practices that were established for radio (enshrined in the Communications Act of 1934) were later extended to television in the 1940s and 1950s. These US developments were not somehow preordained; many nations chose other alternatives. For example, the domination of US commercial media interests aroused alarm in the Canadian House of Commons, provoking Canadians to establish a nonprofit, noncommercial, government-subsidized broadcasting system in 1932.

    Rich Media, Poor Democracy—Communication Politics in Dubious Times Robert W. McChesney (1999 New Press) Chapter 4, “Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-35,” Chapter 5, “Public Broadcasting: Past, Present, . . . and Future?”

415 Rich Media, Poor Democracy—Communication Politics in Dubious Times Robert W. McChesney (1999 New Press) 248

416 Although certain economies of scale could enable the US system to operate at a lower per capita cost than a smaller nation, these economies would not erase the need for local news and programming spanning the entire breadth of US broadcast localities.

    Changing Media: Public Interest Policies for the Digital Age (2009 Free Press) 267, as cited in The Death and Life of American Journalism—The Media Revolution That Will Begin the World Again Robert W. McChesney and John Nichols (2010 Nation Books) 192, Chart 1, Chapter 4

417 Rich Media, Poor Democracy—Communication Politics in Dubious Times Robert W. McChesney (1999 New Press) 248

418 “In Public TV We Trust” Electronic Media July 22, 2002 10, as cited in The Problem of the Media—U.S. Communication Politics in the 21st Century Robert W. McChesney (2004 Monthly Review Press) 243, 342n98

419 See Moyers defend NOW against Tomlinson’s attacks in a speech to the 2005 National Conference for Media Reform: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bb45JxG2q2A http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_bias_in_the_United_States

421 The Machinery of Nature Paul Ehrlich 1986 (Simon and Schuster) 17-18, as cited in Wisdom of the Elders—Honoring Sacred Native Visions of Nature David Suzuki and Peter Knudtson (1992 Bantam Books) 229, 267n9

422 There are about three dozen third parties in the US, the largest of which are the Libertarian, Constitution, and Green Parties. The Green Party was used in this examination due to its comprehensive agenda and Values, as compared to the narrower interests typical of other third parties. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_party_(United_States)#Largest_.28voter_registration_over_75.2C000.29

423 The “What we believe” page was removed from the Republicans’ website during this book’s production. Here is the original document.

424 The Democrats’ Values pages were removed from their website during this book’s production. Here is the original document.

425 The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is an initiative that was launched during the GW Bush administration and has been enthusiastically carried forward under President Obama. The TPP has been billed as another free trade agreement; trade, however, will be one of the least significant aspects of the agreement. Public Citizen’s Global Trade Watch Director Lori Wallach explains that the “TPP now threatens a slow-motion stealth attack against a century of progressive domestic policy.” Among other objectives, the TPP aims to roll back domestic consumer-safety, financial, environmental, and other safeguards. The pact even includes incentives for exporting US jobs to other signatory nations.

    “A Stealth Attack on Democratic Governance”

    Lori Wallach The American Prospect April 2012 51-54

    Two additional initiatives that the Obama administration is pursuing are the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and the Trade in Services Agreement.  See “What Happens in Geneva…” Cole Strangler In These Times September 2014 25-28

427 Currently, there are 17,000 nuclear weapons on the planet; over 90 percent of these are in US and Russian arsenals. The US has 2,150 active nuclear warheads, with some 180 tactical nuclear weapons in five European countries, and has never had a “no first use” nuclear weapons policy. See “Indefensible—David Krieger on the Continuing Threat of Nuclear Weapons” The Sun January 2013

    See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_with_nuclear_weapons

428 Republican-corporate ties are a generally understood political reality. However, as Juliet Schor has observed, “The Democratic Leadership Council, which has dominated the Democratic Party since the beginning of the Clinton administration, is as tied to corporate cash and influence as the Republican Party.” The Insecure American—How We Got Here and What We Should Do About It Hugh Gusterson and Catherine Besteman, eds. (2010 University of California Press) 200

429 The Republicans offer not one word on this issue. The Democrats want to end “tax loopholes that let corporations hide profits overseas,” and on their fair elections page, they state that they “have fought to limit the influence of special interests and have proposed tough disclosure rules that would bring these shadow groups into the light . . .” But as corporate donations continue to flow into Democratic Party coffers, these aspirations have not been realized.

430 “Here Comes the Sun” Mother Jones September-October 2014 8

431 “The Progressive Interview—Bill Moyers”

     Peter Dreier The Progressive (March 2014) 22

432 “TPP—‘The Largest Corporate Power Grab You’ve Never Heard Of’” Steve Randall Extra!—The Magazine of FAIR, The Media Watch Group March 2014 6

433 Bill Moyers states, “He even jeopardized his pledge to preserve women’s rights under Roe v. Wade in order to get a health care bill written by the corporate lapdog Max Baucus and the gang of revolving door mercenaries he hired to write a bill friendly to industry.” “The Progressive Interview—

    Bill Moyers” Peter Dreier The Progressive (March 2014) 23

434 See endnote 425

437 Regarding the Keystone XL pipeline proposal, actor and ecological activist Robert Redford recently stated that the project would “move some of the dirtiest oil on our planet through America’s heartland, exposing our precious farmlands to toxic tar sands oil spills.” The Progressive April 2014 20-21.

         Indeed, the pipeline industry has a record of ecologically damaging pipeline ruptures and failures. Shortly after going on line in 2011, for example, the Keystone 1 pipeline between Alberta and Oklahoma had a failure that spilled 21,000 gallons; during its first two years of operation, 13 more spills occurred. Obama’s signing of the Pipeline Safety, Regulator Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 has put an industry beset with faulty construction, defective parts, and ineffective safety management in charge of itself. “Keystone Whistleblower: Catastrophe Ahead”

    Julie Dermansky The Progressive October 2013 23-26

438 This program is US-sponsored terrorism. Even some US officials have acknowledged drone attacks and killings are fomenting anti-US sentiment and encouraging terrorist actions in reply.

    The Progressive October 2013 34

439 Congressional insider Mike Lofgren offers a scathing review of the two parties similarities in The Party is Over—How Republicans Went Crazy, Democrats Became Useless, and the Middle Class Got Shafted (2012 Viking). See Chapter 11, “Are the Democrats Any Better?”

441 As an exceptional case, the Bush/Gore contest in 2000 was pivotal, and Ralph Nader’s run as the Green’s candidate remains a classic case of the “spoiler” effect. The Nader campaign’s conviction that (ultimately) there was no difference between Bush and Gore kept Nader in the contest and tipped the election to Bush. In this instance, the numerous PNAC neoconservatives that were then appointed to high government positions immediately pursued the Wolfowitz Doctrine (ahead in chapter 14) and pushed domestic policy to the right (chapter 11)—maneuvers that probably would not have transpired under a Gore administration.

442 Why We Fight (Eugene Jarecki 2005)

443http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/dwightdeisenhowerfarewell.html

446 Blackwater—The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army Jeremy Scahill (2007 Nation Books) xv-xvii

448 This progression is detailed in Matt Ehling’s documentary Urban Warrior—The Militarization of American Law Enforcement. (2004 ETS Pictures) Trailer at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQLK6AaH9g4    

    The Sorrows of Empire—Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic Chalmers Johnson (2004 Metropolitan Books) 120-122;

    The End of  America—Letter of Warning to a Young Patriot

    Naomi Wolf (2007 Chelsea Green);
It Can Happen Here—Authoritarian Peril in the Age of Bush

    Joe Conason (2007 St. Martin’s Press)

449 “Rise of the Stealth Oligarchy”
Jim Hightower The Progressive February 2015 50
“The Warrior Cops Suit Up”
Shane Bauer Mother Jones November-December 2014 19-23

450 Nemesis: The last days of the American Republic

    Chalmers Johnson (2006 Metropolitan Books) 248-252

452 Watch Oliver North evade Congressman Jack Brooks’ attempt to question North’s involvement in COG planning at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lNhFiWF3qlw

    “Cheney, The Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Continuity of Government” in The Road to 9/11—Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America Peter Dale Scott (2007 University of California Press) Chapter 14

453 “Taking on TransCanada”

     Dave Saldana The Progressive April 2014 15-18

454 Ibid. (Scott)

         Constitutional law and civil rights attorney Glenn Greenwald details how US law is being used to destroy equality and enhance Elite power in With Liberty and Justice for SOME (2011 Metropolitan Books) Greenwald states, “The criminal justice system is now reserved almost exclusively for ordinary Americans, who are routinely subjected to harsh punishments even for the pettiest of offenses.” In contrast, numerous Elite crimes have been shielded from any legal consequence: “the creation of a global torture regime; the systematic plundering by Wall Street, leading to the 2008 economic crisis; the serial obstruction of justice by high-ranking political officials; the fraudulent home foreclosures by the nation’s largest banks.”

456 George Lakoff describes this effort in Don’t Think of an Elephant—Know your values and frame the debate (2004 Chelsea Green) 15-16, and in Thinking Points—Communicating our American Values and Vision (2006 Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 28, and on video: How Democrats and Pro-gressives Can Win: Solutions from George Lakoff (2004 Educate the Base)

458 Dick Cheney was a founding member of PNAC, although not a signatory of the Clinton letter. The signatories were:

    Donald Rumsfeld—Secretary of Defense

    Paul Wolfowitz—Deputy Secretary of Defense

    Richard Perle—Chair of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee

    Elliott Abrams—Special Assistant to the President and a Senior Director on the National Security Council

    Richard Armitage—Deputy Secretary of State

    John R. Bolton—Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security

    Paula Dobriansky—Undersecretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs

    William J. Bennett—National Security Advisory Council member from the Center for Security Policy think tank

    Zalmay Khalilzad—Ambassador to Afghanistan (2003-2005), Ambassador to Iraq (2005-2007)

    Peter W. Rodman—Assistant Secretary of Defense

    William Schneider, Jr.—Defense Science Board in the Rumsfeld Pentagon

    James Woolsey—Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, & the Pentagon’s Deterrence Concepts Advisory Panel

    Robert Zoellick—Deputy Secretary of State

    The Sorrows of Empire—Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic     Chalmers Johnson (2004 Metropolitan Books) 227-229

459 In Leo Strauss and the Politics of American Empire (2004 Yale University Press), Anne Norton recounts Wolfowitz’s tutelage under “Straussian” Allan Bloom, author of the 1987 bestseller Closing the American Mind, in which Norton says Bloom “longs for a lost world of hierarchy and exclusion.” (65) Elite rule is a central Straussian theme. Leo Strauss’ enduring influence on the neoconservative movement is detailed in the BBC documentary The Power of Nightmares at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/3755686.stm

462 Hijacking Catastrophe (2004 Media Education Foundation) As stated by its producers, the film “places the Bush Administration's original justifications for war in Iraq within the larger context of a two-decade struggle by neoconservatives to dramatically increase military spending while projecting American power and influence globally by means of force.” See http://www.mediaed.org/cgi-bin/commerce.cgi?preadd=action&key=126

464 Estimates of total foreign bases range to over a thousand. Pentagon reports omit US espionage and other bases that could be embarrassing to the US, and do not list many Middle East bases, although several colossal base structures were established in that region following 9/11.

    Dismantling the Empire—America’s Last Best Hope Chalmers Johnson (2010 Metropolitan Books) Chapter 8: America’s Empire of Bases 109-119;

    The Capitalism Papers—Fatal Flaws of an Obsolete System Jerry Mander (2012 Counterpoint) Part VIII, Propensity Toward War 167-171

467“FBI says, ‘No Hard Evidence Connecting Bin Laden to 9/11’”

    Ed Haas Muckraker Report June 6 2006, as cited by David Ray Griffin at http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=15892

    Claire Brown of the International News Network also confirmed Rex Tomb’s statements. See 9/11 Contradictions—An Open Letter to Congress and the Press David Ray Griffin (2008 Olive Branch Press) 191-194

468 “The 9/11 Commission Controversy” Robert Windrem and Victor Limjoco Deep Background: NBC News Investigations January 30, 2008 http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/post911/commission/msnbc_commission_torture.html

469 Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission

    Thomas H. Kean and Lee H. Hamilton (2006 Alfred A. Knopf) 119-120

471 Waking Up From Our Nightmare—The 9/11/01 Crimes in New York City Don Paul and Jim Hoffman (2004 Irresistible/Revolutionary) 3

    See television commentator Bill Alford’s show examining the WTC tower collapses at http://seattlecommunitymedia.org/node/24530

472 New York Times November 29, 2001

473 FEMA World Trade Center Building Performance Study Chapter 5 6.2, “Probable Collapse Sequence,” as cited in

    The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions

    David Ray Griffin (2005 Olive Branch Press) 26, 300n10

474 NIST Final Report, as cited in The Mysterious Collapse of World Trade Center 7—Why the Final Official Report about 9/11 is Unscientific and False David Ray Griffin (2010 Olive Branch Press) XIX

476 Collapse information in The Mysterious Collapse of World Trade Center 7—Why the Final Official Report about 9/11 is Unscientific and False

    David Ray Griffin (2010 Olive Branch Press) xiv

477 Ibid. at xix

478 “Theories of 9/11” Hartford Advocate January 29 2008, as cited in Cognitive Infiltration—An Obama Appointee’s Plan to Undermine the 9/11 Conspiracy Theory David Ray Griffin (2011 Olive Branch Press) 49

479 “Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe” Ibid. at 70 http://www.webcitation.org/5tmFOBanU

480The link for this website has been changed to http://www.ae911truth.org/about.html

482 Incidentally, Securacom, the WTC’s security contractor in 2001, was run by GW Bush’s cousin Writ Walker III, and Bush’s brother Marvin was another principal in the company.

483 The 9/11 Commission Report—Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (No publication date given, W.W. Norton & Company) 20, 458n116

484 A press release stated that President Bush had “asked Vice President Cheney to oversee the development of a national effort so that we may do the very best possible job of protecting our people from catastrophic harm.” http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/WCPD-2001-05-14/pdf/WCPD-2001-05-14-Pg718.pdf

485 The Road to 9/11—Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America

    Peter Dale Scott (2007 University of California Press) 216-218;

    Crossing the Rubicon—The Decline of the American Empire and the End of the Age of Oil Michael C. Ruppert (2004 New Society Publishers) 333-356

486 Ibid. and Aviation Week and Space Technology June 3, 2002;

    9/11 Synthetic Terror—Made in the USA

    Webster Griffin Tarpley (2006 Progressive Press) 207-212

487 Aviation Week September 9, 2002, Ibid. at 212

488 Ibid. at 212

490 http://nz911truth.org/news/poll-in-germany-89-5-doubt-official-version-of-911/ Poll information also in The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions David Ray Griffin (2005 Olive Branch Press) 2-4

491 The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich—A History of Nazi Germany William L. Shirer (1990 (first pub. in 1959) Simon and Schuster) 191-196

492 Dreaming War—Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta

    Gore Vidal (2002 Nation Books)

    Barrie Zwicker describes similarities between 9/11 and the Reichstag fire in Towers of Deception—The Media Cover-Up of 9/11

    (2006 New Society Publishers) 234-239

494 “Sense Making Under ‘Holographic’ Conditions: Framing SCAD Research” American Behavioral Scientist V53 N6 February 2010 (Sage Publications) SCADs defined by Lance deHaven-Smith at 796

495 Florida State University professor Lance deHaven-Smith explains that Senator Robert Kennedy’s assassination occurred after he had denounced the Vietnam War and become the Democratic frontrunner in the 1968 presidential election. Among other possible motives, Robert Kennedy’s assassination was a pre-emptive elimination of an anti-war president. Evidence contradicting the official Sirhan Sirhan story (another lone assassin legend) includes medical evidence of Robert’s physical wounds, indicating that fatal shots were fired at point-blank range, an impossible feat for Sirhan Sirhan, who remained several feet away from Kennedy.

    American Conspiracies—Lies, Lies, and More Dirty Lies that the Government Tells Us Jesse Ventura with Dick Russell (2010 Skyhorse Publishing) Chapter 6: The Assassination of Robert Kennedy

    Brothers—The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years

    David Talbot (2007 Free Press) Chapter 8;

    JFK and the Unspeakable—Why He Died and Why It Matters

    James W. Douglass (2008 Orbis Books) 371-374;

    Legacy of Secrecy—The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination

    Lamar Waldron with Thom Hartmann (Counterpoint 2008) Chapters 56-59

496 Washington Post April 12, 2002

497 For the history and current implications of the conspiracy theory label and concept see Conspiracy Theory in America

     Lance deHaven-Smith (2013 University of Texas Press)

498 World as Lover, World as Self Joanna Macy (1991 Parallax Press) 4

499 Peck also states, “Since power confers status, nothing can be more enhancing of self-esteem,” and “Since power in all its varieties can be so alluring, it is no wonder that most people cling to it for all it is worth and as long as they can—usually until it is finally wrested away from them . . .”

    In Search of Stones—A Pilgrimage of Faith, Reason, and Discovery

    M. Scott Peck, M.D. (1995 Hyperion) 45-46, 409-410

    As legendary economist John Kenneth Galbraith put it, “People of privilege will always risk their complete destruction rather than surrender any material part of their advantage.”

    The Age of Uncertainty, a 1977 book and television series.

500 See epigraphs of chapters 6 and 7

501 Charles and David Koch (Koch Industries) have funneled  over $67 million into climate-denial front groups. These efforts have amplified the voices of a few industry-funded skeptics in an attempt to counteract the scientific consensus that global warming is underway and that fossil fuel-driven industrial civilization is causing it.

    http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/global-warming-and-energy/polluterwatch/koch-industries/

    The Heat is On: The high stakes battle over the Earth’s threatened climate Ross Gelbspan (1997 Addison-Wesley) “The Battle for Control of Reality”

502 See endnote 181

503 “How ALEC Fronts for Fossil Fuels” Nick Surgey The Progressive July-August 2014 57-59;

    “If Your House is On Fire” An interview with Kathleen Dean Moore

    The Sun December 2012; http://www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?ID=8361&Method=Full

504 People of the Lie—The Hope for Healing Human Evil

    M. Scott Peck, M.D. (1983 Simon & Schuster) 42 74-75

505 http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/12/09/world/cia-torture-report-key-points.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhanced_interrogation_techniques

506 Although GW Bush was unwavering in his support, a CIA chief was apparently worried enough to destroy videotapes of CIA torture sessions in the mid-2000s. The CIA’s head of directorate of operations stated that he thought the tapes would be “devastating to the CIA,” and that “the heat from destroying [them would be] nothing compared to what it would be if the tapes ever got into [the] public domain.”

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhanced_interrogation_techniques

507 “41 men targeted but 1,147 people killed” The Guardian November 24, 2014

508 “Turning a Wedding Into a Funeral” Democracy Now! February 21, 2014

510 Managing Without Growth—Slower by Design, Not Disaster

    Peter A. Victor (2008 Edward Elgar Publishing)

511 “A Hell of a Time Up at the Palace” Overthrow—America’s Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq Stephen Kinzer (2006 Times Books)

512 When the Carter administration was renegotiating the US treaty with Panama, the New York Times commented that “We stole it, and removed the incriminating evidence from our history books.” A People’s History of the United States Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 555

513 The Great Quotations

    George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 53

514 Give Me Liberty—A Handbook for American Revolutionaries

    Naomi Wolf (2008 Simon & Schuster) 7, 12

515 The Tipping Point—How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference  

    Malcolm Gladwell (2002 Little, Brown, and Company) 12

516 Wisconsin Uprising—Labor Fights Back

    Michael D. Yates, ed. (2010 Monthly Review Press)

517 The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class

    Guy Standing (2011 Bloomsbury Publishing)

    Twilight Of The Elites: America After Meritocracy

    Christopher Hayes (2012 Crown Publishers)

    Citation from a July 2012 In These Times essay adapted from Hayes’ book.

518 New York Times, September 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 2011

521 The Great Quotations

    George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 592

522 The NSA’s intercepts were surveilling over a billion people worldwide when Edward Snowden revealed details of the Agency’s secret programs in 2013. Snowden’s evidence also proved that government officials, including the NSA chief, had been lying to Congress about the purpose and comprehensive nature of the NSA’s citizen surveillance operations. But in the national discourse, outrage was directed not at the NSA and these corporate invasions of citizen privacy; it was directed at Snowden.

         Media pundits began calling Snowden a traitor and a criminal, while Obama’s Justice Department talked of prosecuting him under the 1917 Espionage Act. The White House defended the NSA’s information collection programs, calling them “a critical tool in protecting the nation from terrorist threats.” Diane Feinstein, then chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee, also backed up the NSA stating, “people want the homeland kept safe.”  

    No Place to Hide—Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State Glenn Greenwald (2014 Metropolitan Books) Chapters 2 & 3

    “They’ll be Watching You” Steven Renderos

    Extra!—The Magazine of FAIR, The Media Watch Group May 2014 11-12

523 The other nine characteristics Britt found were: disdain for the recognition of human rights; religion intertwined with government; cronyism and corruption; powerful and continuing nationalism; identification of enemies/scapegoats as a unifying cause; rampant sexism; obsession with national security; disdain for intellectuals and the arts; and obsession with crime and punishment. “Fascism Anyone?”

    Laurence W. Britt Free Inquiry Spring, 2003, V23 N2

524 Urban warrior, see chapter 14; corporate vote tampering, see chapter 7.

525 The End of America—Letter of Warning to a Young Patriot

    Naomi Wolf (2007 Chelsea Green)

526 It Can Happen Here—Authoritarian Peril in the Age of Bush

    Joe Conason (2007 St. Martin’s Press) 141

527 Millions were evicted from their homes following Elite machinations that brought on the 2008 financial crisis. Then, private equity firms went on a buying spree, turning the houses into rentals. The Blackstone Group, one of the largest private equity firms, bought 1,400 Atlanta houses in one day, and has acquired over 40,000 homes, most of them through foreclosures.

    “The Wolf of Your Street” Mother Jones March-April 2014 12-16

    Overall, home ownership is down and rent prices are rising.
See “Game of Homes” In These Times April 2014 18-23

528 The Great Thoughts Compiled by George Seldes with David Laskin and Henry Steele Commager (1996 Ballantine Books) 215

530 Senator Russ Feingold (D-WI cast the only senate vote against the Patriot Act. In the House, only 15 percent voted against it.

    “The USA PATRIOT Act Was Planned Before 9/11”

    Jennifer Van Bergen Truthout May 20, 2002 http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/PAplndbefore.html

    See also “Conquering the American People” in Crossing the Rubicon—The Decline of the American Empire and the End of the Age of Oil

    Michael C. Ruppert (2004 New Society Publishers) Chapter 28

531 Not only did Wall Street operatives create the conditions that precipitated millions of home foreclosures, they are now buying these foreclosed properties and turning them into profitable rentals.

    “Whose Recovery Is It, Anyway?” Sarah Jaffe

    Extra!—The Magazine of FAIR, The Media Watch Group May 2014 9-10

    See also Inside Job

    Audrey Marrs and Charles H. Ferguson (2010 Sony Pictures Classics)

533 Recall how the CIA hired gangs of thugs to stage battle against each other in order to generate chaos in Tehran (chapter 1). The proposed solution to this bedlam was the return of the Elite’s friend the shah, the Iranian’s dreaded dictator. The Joint Chiefs’ Operation Northwoods plan followed this same logic: Pentagon-sponsored terrorism against US citizens was to be attributed to Castro; a military invasion of Cuba was to be the solution.

534 An agent provocateur is an undercover agent who, for example, might incite violence at an otherwise peaceful protest rally, and thus enable the entire demonstration to be portrayed as an anarchist endeavor. There are now numerous incidents of covert infiltration of protest groups and public demonstrations. Police officers and FBI agents are known to have acted as agents provocateurs in the United States. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2009/may/10/g20-policing-agent-provacateurs

     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbLU9tdDwxo

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent_provocateur

535 Thinking Points—Communicating our American Values and Vision George Lakoff (2006 Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 102

536 Millions protested the 2003 plan to invade Iraq; the invasion proceeded. The Occupy Wall Street movement drew attention to Wall Street corruption; there have been no noteworthy investigations, reprimands, or financial reforms.  A majority of the electorate favors a public option for health care; the two dominant political parties won’t even discuss it.

         While not a single conviction has resulted from the corruption that led to the 2008 crash, some of those involved in the perpetration of this debacle have made off with fortunes. Hedge fund manager John Paulson made $3.7 billion in 2007; then approximately doubled his net worth in 2008.

    Mother Jones lists the top ten winners at http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2009/03/10-people-who-are-profiting-global-economic-crisis

537 Ackerman and Fishkin’s Deliberation Day concept evolved from 15 years of experimental and scholarly research. Fishkin conducted Deliberative Polling experiments for over a decade, and collaborated with Ackerman to study Citizen Juries, National Issues Forums, Planning Cells, and other deliberative formats as well.

    Deliberation Day

    Bruce Ackerman and James S. Fishkin (2004 Yale University Press)

538 Ibid., chapter 1: Imagine

539 The four circumstances Surowiecki deems necessary for the wisdom of crowds to be expressed are:

         Diversity: A wide assortment of group members yields differing perspectives and helps avoid what has been labeled groupthink.

         Independence: Circumstances that allow group members to develop and maintain their own opinions can prevent particularly outspoken or charismatic members from influencing others toward a particular opinion.

         Decentralization: A broad-based, non-hierarchical group organization puts the people who are closest to a problem in the best position to propose solutions to those problems.

         Aggregation: Some mechanism is employed to turn private judgments into a collective decision.

         The diversity, independence, and decentralized decision-making of Deliberation Day would be ensured through random selection of participants, transparency in compiling conclusions, and the skill of professional facilitators. The Wisdom of Crowds—Why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies, and nations James Surowiecki (2004 Doubleday)

540 The EU averages 77 percent voter turnout, compared to US presidential election-year turnouts of around 56 percent—curiously close to the average South and Central American voter turnout of 54 percent since 1945, when US interventions became common. Voter turnout in the 2014 midterm election was about 37 percent.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voter_turnout

541 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditures and Deliberation Day

    Bruce Ackerman and James S. Fishkin (2004 Yale University Press) 144

542 Currently, the Cabinet is composed of 15 Departments: State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, and Homeland Security. Additionally, the senior officers of the federal executive branch include the president and vice president, the directors of the Office of Management and Budget and the EPA, the US Trade Representative and Ambassador to the UN, the chair of the Council of Economic Advisors, and the administrator of the Small Business Administration.

543 For example, Robert McNamara was the president of Ford Motor Company but knew virtually nothing about the inner workings of the Pentagon behemoth. Nevertheless, President Kennedy recruited McNamara as his secretary of defense, and McNamara then presided over the full expansion of the Vietnam War.

         Five Cabinet members of the GW Bush administration possessed net financial wealth estimated between $10 million and $200 million, a roster headed by former Alcoa CEO Paul O’Neill. Obama’s Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker’s net worth is estimated at $1.85 billion.

         A better link for this information is now https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2001/05/bush-m16.html

544 The Death and Life of American Journalism—The Media Revolution That Will Begin the World Again

    Robert W. McChesney and John Nichols (2010 Nation Books) 190

545 Robert McChesney and John Nichols have proposed various mechanisms to give the electorate a voice in public media funding. Anchored in global research and analysis, their proposal includes mechanisms for citizen input and public accountability, and safeguards against special interest domination.

    The Death and Life of American Journalism—The Media Revolution That Will Begin the World Again Robert W. McChesney and John Nichols (2010 Nation Books) Chapter 3 “Why the State,” and Chapter 4 “Subsidizing Democracy” See also “How to Save Journalism” John Nichols and Robert W. McChesney The Nation January 25, 2010 http://www.thenation.com/article/how-save-journalism-0

546 Let me tell you what I’ve learned”: Texas Wisewomen Speak

    Paula Pierce (2002 University of Texas Press) 21

547 Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 11

548 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 7-8

549 A People’s History of the United States

    Howard Zinn (1980 Harper Colophon) 399-400

550 The Second World War Winston Churchill (1951 London) V4 p428,

    as cited in Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) 7

551 Shattered Peace—The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State Daniel Yergin (1977 Houghton Mifflin) 12-13

552 Killing Hope—U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II William Blum (2004 Common Courage Press) Chapter 2 “Italy 1947-1948—Free elections, Hollywood style” 32

553 Zelikow’s résumé at that time included service with Condoleezza Rice on the GHW Bush National Security Council, co-authorship of a book with Rice during the Clinton years, and directorship of the Aspen Strategy Group, a foreign policy think tank whose membership included Rice, Dick Cheney, and Paul Wolfowitz. Then, as a member of the National Security Council’s transition team (ushering in the GW Bush administration), Zelikow again worked closely with Rice. Bush then appointed Zelikow to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.

         The same year Zelikow became the 9/11 Commission’s executive director, Rice (as National Security Advisor) enlisted him to develop her National Security Strategy. So at the same time Zelikow’s longtime associate Condoleezza Rice was denying that “anybody could have predicted that these people would . . . use an airplane as a missile,” the 9/11 Commission completely ignored all of these conflicts of interest, save one. “As the Executive Director of the Commission, Zelikow has recused himself from our work on the Clinton-Bush transition at the National Security Council.” (emphasis added) (The 9/11 Commission’s Final Report, p509n165, as cited in The 9/11 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions David Ray Griffin (2005 Olive Branch Press) 8-9)

554 The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Investigation Philip Shenon (2008 Twelve) 388

555 Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission

    Thomas H. Kean and Lee H. Hamilton (2006 Alfred A. Knopf) 116

556 The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Investigation Philip Shenon (2008 Twelve) 389

557 Ibid. at 84-86

558 Crossing the Rubicon—The Decline of the American Empire and the End of the Age of Oil Michael C. Ruppert (2004 New Society Publishers) 50-68

559 Ibid.

560 The Land of Desire concept is borrowed from

    Land of Desire—Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture William Leach (1993 Vintage Books)

561 The full quote is “We talk about the American Dream, and want to tell the world about the American Dream, but what is that dream, in most cases, but the dream of material things? I sometimes think that the United States for this reason, is the greatest failure the world has ever seen.” From an unpublished play entitled “Give Me Liberty and—” The Great Quotations George Seldes with J. Donald Adams (1966 Caesar-Stuart) 535

562 Land of Desire—Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture William Leach (1993 Vintage Books) 359-367

563 Ibid. at 7, 8

564 Ibid. at 305, 339, 341, 377

565 Ibid. at 298, 299

566 Shoveling Fuel for a Runaway Train—Errant Economists, Shameful Spenders, and a Plan to Stop Them All

    Brian Czech (2000 University of California Press) 22-24

567 Economist and General Systems Theory cofounder Kenneth Boulding once stated, “Anyone who believes exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world is either a madman or an economist.”

    The Great Delusion—A Mad Inventor, Death in the Tropics, and the Utopian Origins of Economic Growth Steven Stoll (2008 Hill and Wang) 153

568 See Appendix I, Current Ecological Trends, Item 5.

         Actually, nearly all gains from Keynesian efficiencies derive from petroleum. As Steven Stoll observes, “Oil is not simply implicated in everything we call growth—there has never been growth without it.”

    Ibid. at 158

569 In the Absence of the Sacred—The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations Jerry Mander (1991 Sierra Club Books) 23

570 New York Times February 4, 1899

571 http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/